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Teknologi Dan Rekayasa

OXY-ACETYLENE WELDING
Teknologi dan Rekayasa
DISTORTION
 Objective :
After studying this lesson, the students
can be to identify the distortion.
Teknologi dan Rekayasa
Distortion Caused
 If we heat a piece of metal, it gets larger,
and when cooled, it gets smaller.
Consider a cool piece of metal grasped
lightly in a vice. If we heat this piece of
metal, it expands in all directions except
the direction of the vice jaws.
Teknologi dan Rekayasa
Distortion Caused
 In a welded joint, distortion is classified as angular,
longitudinal or transverse.
Longitudinal
distortion
Transverse
distortion

Angular
distortion

Teknologi dan Rekayasa
Distortion Caused
Before welding
Angular distortion
90° 80° - 87°
After welding
Teknologi dan Rekayasa
Distortion Caused
 Angular Distortion : reduces the angle
between the plates.
 Longitudinal Distortion : causes shrinkage to
take place along the weld, bending the ends
of the weldment upwards
 Transverse Distortion : the end of one plate
joins another continuing plate, and the
continuing plate bends or buckles in the
heated area.
Teknologi dan Rekayasa
Distortion Caused
 Distortion caused by welding may be
minimised by :
1. Restraining the joint so it cannot move
2. Positioning the plates to allow for
shrinkage
3. Using heat to compensate for weld
shrinkage
 Steps to remedy distortion may be taken
before or after the weld is made.
Teknologi dan Rekayasa
Controlling Distortion Before
Welding
1. Tack Welding
The plates are “tacked” together with
small welds before complete welding of
the joint takes place.
Tack are usually at the ends of the joint,
and on long joints at points along the
joint about 50 mm apart.
Teknologi dan Rekayasa
Controlling Distortion Before
Welding
 Tack welding
“Tacks” of weld stop plates
separating during welding
Teknologi dan Rekayasa
Controlling Distortion Before
Welding
2. Offsetting
The plates are tacked together but are
“offset”. That is to say, the angle between
the plates where the joint is to take place
is a little larger than is required for the
finished weld. The cooling weld metal
pulls the plates into their correct position.
For example, two plates so be welded
together at right angles would be offset so
about 93° before commencement of the
weld.
Teknologi dan Rekayasa
Controlling Distortion Before
Welding
Offsetting. Coding weld draws plates
together to produce the required 90° angle.
93°
Position of proposed
weldment
Teknologi dan Rekayasa
Controlling Distortion Before
Welding
3. Jigs and Fixtures
Various holding devices can be used to hold
the work firmly so that it cannot move as the
weld cools. G clamps and toggle clamps are
commonly used for this purpose.
4. Preheating
Various methods of preheating are used to
combat distortion.
 Total preheating
 Local preheating
Teknologi dan Rekayasa
Controlling Distortion Before
Welding
5. Contra Heating
if a component is to be welded on one
side, it may be heated on the other side
just before welding. This means that both
sides expand and contract at nearly the
same rate, and distortion is minimised.
For example, if a branch is to be welded
into a pipe, contra heating the opposite
side of the main pipe will lessen
distortion.
Teknologi dan Rekayasa
Controlling Distortion Before
Welding
 Contra Heating
Weldment
Pipe is heated on opposite side to weld to straighten
Teknologi dan Rekayasa
Controlling Distortion During
Welding
1. Back step Welding
The plates are tacked together but are not
welded straight along from end to end.
Instead, they are welded in short “stitches”
each about 40 to 50 mm long. Each much
finishes where the previous one started.
Teknologi dan Rekayasa
Controlling Distortion During
Welding
 Back step Welding

Start first bead and weld to end
Start second bead and weld to
beginning of first bead
Teknologi dan Rekayasa
Controlling Distortion During
Welding
2. Sequence Welding
A weld is made on one side, then another is
made diagonally opposite to minimise
uneven heating during welding.
Sequence welding can be used on such
things as joining pipes to plates, bosses to
shafts, etc.
Teknologi dan Rekayasa
Controlling Distortion During
Welding
Weld first on one side – then
diagonally opposite – then
complete weld
 Sequence Welding
Teknologi dan Rekayasa
Controlling Distortion During
Welding
3. Wedging or Tapered Gap Welding
Plates that are to be butt welded are
positioned before welding with a tapering root
gap.
The root gap is the normal width where the
weld is to start, but gets wider in a ratio
varying between 1:25 and 1:50 (A pair of
plates 50 cm long would have a root gap
tapering from 12 mm to 2 mm).
Teknologi dan Rekayasa
Controlling Distortion During
Welding
 Wedging or Tapered Gap Welding
Wedge is removed as weld progresses thus
maintaining constant gap along weldment
Teknologi dan Rekayasa
Controlling Distortion After Welding
1. Hammering or Peening
As weldment cools, it shrink is hammered or
peened during cooling, this will “stretch” the
weld metal, tending to counteract the
shrinkage.
Peening is often used on the soft monel type
deposits that are used to weld cast iron. Care
should be taken, as excessive peening will
cause the grain structure of the metal to break
down and fracture.
Teknologi dan Rekayasa
Controlling Distortion After Welding
2. Heat Shrinkage
If a flat plate is welded around its edge, these
edge shrink and become shorter. However,
the centre of the plate still unwelded has not
shrank. This causes the centre of the plate to
curve or form a dished configuration.
Teknologi dan Rekayasa


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