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# Calculations 2

Tech Connect
Welding
Measuring Tools Used in Welding
Rulers
Steel rule
Hook rule
Measuring Tools Used in Welding
(continued)
Pocket tape
Steel tape
Micrometers
Measuring Tools Used in Welding
(continued)
Outside
Inside
American and U.S. standard metal gauges
Measuring Tools Used in Welding
(continued)
Fillet gauge
Measuring Tools Used in Welding
(continued)
Calipers
Measuring Tools Used in Welding
(continued)
Outside
Inside
Protractor
Measuring Tools Used in Welding
(continued)
Units of Linear Measurement
Reading inches: Each inch is marked by a
numbered line. These lines are the longest.
Reading ½ inch: The second longest lines indicate
the ½ inch marks.
Reading ¼ inch: The third longest lines indicate the
¼ inch marks.
Reading 1/8 inch: The fourth longest lines indicate
the 1/8 inch marks.
Reading 1/16 inch: The shortest lines indicate the
1/16 inch marks.
Step 1: Determine what type of ruler you are using.
Step 2: Line up the left end of the ruler with the left
edge of the object to be measured.
Step 3: Record the largest inch number closest to the
right edge of the object.
Step 4: Count the number of lines from the whole inch
mark to the edge of the object.
Step 5: Determine what fraction to use.
Step 6: Record the entire measurement.
Converting Units of Linear
Measurement
Types of Angles
Straight angle
Right angle
Types of Angles (continued)
Obtuse angle
Acute angle
Using a Protractor
Step 1: Locate the common endpoint shared by both
sides of the angle and place the center of the protractor
on that point.
Step 2: Line up the edge of the protractor so that one
side of the angle crosses the zero mark on one of the
scales.
Step 3: Determine where the other side of the angle
crosses the protractor, and use the same scale you
used in Step 2 to read the measurement of the angle.
Polygons and Formulas used to
Calculate Area and Perimeter
Polygons and Formulas used to
Calculate Area and Perimeter (continued)
Polygons and Formulas used to
Calculate Area and Perimeter (continued)
Units Used to Measure Area
Converting Square Units of
Measurement
Parts of a Circle
Circumference – The distance around a circle.
Radius – A line that joins the center of a circle with any
point on the circle.
Diameter – A line that passes through the center of a
circle.
Pi – A Greek letter (π) that represents the ratio of a
circle’s circumference to its diameter.
A circumference is expressed using the
uppercase letter C.
C = π x d, where d= diameter of a circle.
Calculating Circumference
Calculating Area
Area (A) = πr
2
Calculating Volume
Cube
Volume = length x width x height

Calculating Volume (continued)
Rectangular solid
Volume = length x width x height

Calculating Volume (continued)
Cylinder
Volume = πr2 x height, where r = radius
Units Used to Measure Volume
Converting Cubic Units of Measurement
Calculating Flat Stock Length Given
Outside Measurements
Flat stock length = (total length of bent metal) –
[(number of 90º bends) + (2 x (metal thickness))]
Calculating Flat Stock Length Given
Inside Measurements
Flat stock length = sum of inside dimensions
Calculating Flat Stock Length Given
Outside Diameter
Step 1: Subtract the thickness from the diameter.
Step 2: Calculate the circumference using the diameter
calculated in Step 1.
Step 1: Add the thickness to the diameter.
Step 2: Calculate the circumference using the diameter
calculated in Step 1.
Calculating Flat Stock Length Given
Inside Diameter