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AER109-AIRCRAFT PROPULSION

Unit-1
Fundamentals of air Breathing
Engines
TEXT BOOKS:

• Hill, P.G. & Peterson, C.R. , Mechanics & Thermodynamics of Propulsion,
Addison – Wesley Longman INC, 1999.

REFERENCE BOOKS:

• Gas Turbine Theory, Cohen, H. Rogers, G.F.C. and Saravanamuttoo, H.I.H.
“Longman, 1989.

• Aero thermodynamics of Aircraft Engine Components, Oates, G.C., , AIAA
Education Series, New York, 1985.

• Rolls Royce Jet Engine – Third Edition – 1983

• Gas Turbine, Jet and Rocket Propulsion, Mathur, M.L. and Sharma, R.P., ,
Standard Publishers & Distributors, Delhi, 1999.

• Gas Turbine, V. Ganesan, Tata McGraw Hill Pub. Co. Ltd., 1996.

Course Pre-requisites

• A course in Engineering Thermodynamics
• Additionally : A course in Fluid Mechanics
would be helpful
• There are two general types of jet propulsion air-breathing and non air-
breathing engines.
• Air-breathing engines use oxygen from the atmosphere in the combustion
of fuel. They include the turbojet, turboprop, ramjet, and pulse-jet. The
term jet is generally used only in reference to air-breathing engines.

• Non air-breathing engines carry an oxygen supply. They can be used both
in the atmosphere and in outer space. They are commonly called rockets
and are of two kinds liquid-propellant and solid-propellant.

• Air-breathing engines may be further divided into two groups, based on
the way in which they compress air for combustion. The turbojet and
turboprop each has a compressor, usually turbine-driven, to take in air.
They are called gas-turbine engines. The ramjet and the pulse-jet do not
have compressors.
Define propulsion
• Propulsion is a means of creating force leading
to movement.
• A propulsion system has a source of
mechanical power (some type of engine or
motor, muscles), and some means of using
this power to generate force, such as wheel
and axles, propellers, a propulsive nozzle,
wings, fins .
Review of Basic
Thermodynamics
Definition for Thermodynamics

• Thermodynamics is the branch of science or
physics that studies various forms of energies and
their conversion from one form to the other like
electrical energy to mechanical energy, heat to
electrical, chemical to mechanical, wind to electrical
etc.

• The study of thermodynamics is comprised of
important laws of thermodynamics namely first law
of thermodynamics, second law of thermodynamics,
third law of thermodynamics and Zeroth law of
thermodynamics.


Cont…..
• When any of the properties of the system such as
temperature, pressure, volume etc change, the system is
said to have undergone thermodynamic process.
• Various types of thermodynamic processes are:
isothermal process, adiabatic process, isochoric
process, isobaric process, and reversible process.
Macroscopic and microscopic view point
• There are two points of view from which the behavior of
matter can be studied.
1.Macroscopic
2.Microscopic
In the macroscopic approach a certain quantity of
matter is considered, without the events occurring at the
molecular level being taken into account.
From the microscopic point of view matter
composed of molecule. if it is a gas each molecule at a
given instant has a certain position ,velocity and energy
and for each molecule these change occurred very
frequently as a result of collisions.
Thermodynamics = Therme + Dynamis
(Heat) (Power)
Aspects related to Energy and Energy Transformation
- Power Generation
- Refrigeration
- Relationships among Properties of Matter
System & Surroundings
SYSTEM
SURROUNDINGS
BOUNDARY
SYSTEM :
Quantity of matter or region in space,
chosen for study.
SURROUNDINGS :
Mass or region outside the SYSTEM.
BOUNDARY :
Real / Imaginary surface that separates the
SYSTEM from SURROUNDINGS.
BOUNDARY :

Fixed / Movable
Shared by both,
SYSTEM and SURROUNDINGS
No Thickness
No Mass / Volume
Close System
CLOSED
System
m = const.
Mass NO
Energy YES
GAS
2 kg
1 m
3

GAS
2 kg
3 m
3

CLOSED System
with Moving Boundary
Also known as CONTROL MASS
Isolated System
ISOLATED
System
m = const.
E = const.
Mass NO
Energy NO
Open System
OPEN
System
Mass YES
Energy YES
Also known as CONTROL VOLUME
e.g. Water Heater, Car Radiator, Turbine, Compressor
BOUNDARY of OPEN System is known as
CONTROL SURFACE
In
Out
Imaginary Boundary
Real Boundary
Properties of System
Any characteristic of a System is known as its PROPERTY.

e.g. Pressure (P), Volume (V), Temperature (T) and mass (m), etc.
also Viscosity (μ), Electric Resistance (R), Thermal Conductivity (k), etc.
Intensive : Independent on mass of system.
- e.g. Velocity (c), Elevation (h), etc.
Extensive : Dependent on mass of system.
- e.g. Pressure (P), Density (ρ), etc.
Specific : Extensive properties per unit mass.
- e.g. Sp. Vol (v=V/m), Sp. Enthalpy (h=H/m), etc.
State & Equilibrium
Assume a System NOT undergoing any change.

Set of properties to completely describe the condition of the system is known as its
STATE
m = 2 kg
T
1
= 25 ºC
V
1
= 3 m
3

m = 2 kg
T
1
= 25 ºC
V
1
= 1 m
3

STATE 1 STATE 2
State & Equilibrium
EQUILIBRIUM : State of Balance
Thermal Equilibrium :
- NO Temperature Gradient throughout the system.
Mechanical Equilibrium :
- NO Pressure Gradient throughout the system.
Phase Equilibrium :
- System having more than 1 phase.
- Mass of each phase is in equilibrium.
Chemical Equilibrium :
- Chemical composition is constant
- NO reaction occurs.
Path & Process
Any change a system undergoes from one equilibrium state to another is known as
PROCESS.
Series of states through which system passes during the process is known as its PATH.
Property A
State 1
State 2
P
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

B

Path State 1 State 2
Path & Process
t=0 t=t
1

t=0 t=t
2t
t
2
< t
1

Quasi-Static
Non-Quasi-Static
Process proceeds in such a manner that
system remains infinitesimally close to
equilibrium conditions at all times.
It is known as QUASI-STATIC or
QUASI-EQUILIBRIUM Process.
Path & Process
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
P
)

Volume (V)
V=Const
Isochoric
P=Const
Isobaric
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(
T
)

Enthalpy (h)/ Entropy (s)
T=Const
Isothermal
h=Const
Isenthalpic
s=Const
Isentropic
Cycle
CYCLE :

A system is said to have
undergone a cycle if it returns to its
ORIGINAL state at the end of the
process.

Hence, for a CYCLE, the
INITIAL and the FINAL states are
identical.

Property A
State 1
State 2
P
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

B

Reversible / Irreversible Process
Reversible Process : Process that can be reversed without leaving any trace on the
Surroundings.
i.e. Both, System and Surroundings are returned to their initial
states at the end of the Process.
This is only possible when net Heat and net Work Exchange
between the system and the surroundings is ZERO for the Process.
t=0 t=t
1

Pendulum
Quasi-Static Compression and Expansion
Reversible / Irreversible Process
Most of the Processes in nature are IRREVERSIBLE.
i.e. Having taken place, they can not reverse themselves spontaneously and restore the
System to its original State.
e.g. Hot cup of coffee Cools down when exposed to
Surroundings.

But, Warm up by gaining heat from Surroundings.
i.e. w/o external Heat supply.
Temperature
TEMPERATURE :

- No EXACT Definition.
- Broad Definition : “Degree of Hotness / Cold”
- This definition is based on our physiological sensation.
- Hence, may be misleading.
- e.g. Metallic chair may feel cold than Wooden chair; even at SAME temperature.
- Properties of materials change with temperature.
- We can make use of this phenomenon to deduce EXACT level of temperature.
Temperature Scales
1. Celsius Scale ( ºC ) – SI System
2. Fahrenheit Scale ( ºF ) – English System
3. Kelvin Scale ( K ) – SI System
4. Rankine Scale ( R ) – English System
Celsius Scale and Fahrenheit Scale – Based on 2 easily reproducible fixed states,
viz. Freezing and Boiling points of water.
i.e. Ice Point and Steam Point
Thermodynamic Temperature Scale – Independent of properties of any substance.
- In conjunction with Second Law of Thermodynamics
Thermodynamic Temperature Scale – Kelvin Scale and Rankine Scale.
Hot End
Regenerator
Pulse Tube
Temperature Scales

T ( K ) = T ( ºC ) + 273.15

T ( R ) = T ( ºF ) + 459.67

T ( ºF ) = 1.8 T ( ºC ) + 32

T ( R ) = 1.8 T ( K )
-273.15 0
273.16 0.01
0
-459.67
491.69 32.02
ºC K ºF
R
Conversion Factors :
Pressure
Local Atmospheric Pressure
( 1.01325 bar @ Sea Level )
Absolute Zero Pressure
P (gauge)
P (abs)
P (atm)
P (vacuum)
P (gauge) = P (abs) – P (atm)
P (vacuum) = P (atm) – P (abs)
Ideal & Real Gas
Any equation that relates the Pressure, Temperature and Sp. Volume of the
substance is known as Equation of State.
In 1662, Robert Boyle, observed that Pressure of the gas is inversely proportional to
its Volume.
i.e. PV = C
In 1802, J. Charles and J. Gay-Lussac, observed that Volume of the gas is directly
proportional to its Temperature.
i.e. V /T= C
|
.
|

\
|
= ¬
v
T
R P OR
Pv = RT
This equation is called Ideal Gas Equation of State.
The hypothetical gas that obeys this law, is known as Ideal Gas.
R is the Constant of Proportionality, given by the unit ( kJ / kg.K )
Ideal & Real Gas
Now, V (Total Volume) = m.v (Sp. Vol.)
PV =mRT

Thus, for a fixed mass;
2
2 2
1
1 1
T
V P
T
V P
=
Behaviour of a Real Gas approaches to the that of an Ideal Gas, at low densities.
Thus, at low pressures and high temperatures, the density of the gas decreases
and the gas approaches to Ideal Gas.
Thermal Equilibrium
Thermal Equilibrium : NO change w.r.t. Temperature
NO Temperature Gradient.
HOT cup of tea / coffee cools off w.r.t. time.
COLD Drink warms up w.r.t. time.
When a body is brought in contact with another body at different temperature, heat
is transferred from the body at higher temperature to that with lower one; till both
attain a THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM.
Heat & Work
CLOSED
System
Heat
Work
Energy can cross the Boundary of the System in 2 forms : 1. Heat
2. Work
Heat is a form of Energy transferred between 2 Systems
( or a System and the surroundings ) by virtue of
Temperature Difference (∆T).
i.e. Heat is Energy in TRANSITION.
Process involving no Heat Exchange is known as
ADIABATIC Process.
Atmosphere 25ºC
25 ºC
15 ºC
Heat, Q Q=0
Adiabatic
Heat & Work
Possibilities of Adiabatic Process :
1. Perfect Insulation : Negligible Energy transfer through Boundary.
2. Both System and Surrounding at same temperature.
No Energy transfer due to absence of driving force (∆T).
NOTE : Adiabatic Process ≠ Isothermal Process
No Heat Transfer
Energy content & temperature of the system can
be changed with help of Work.
Heat & Work
Energy Transfer in from of Heat by 3 ways :

CONDUCTION : Transfer of Energy from a more energetic particle of a substance
to the adjacent less energetic one, as a result of interaction
between them.

CONVECTION : Transfer of Energy between a solid surface and the adjacent fluid
that is in motion. It involved both, the combined effect of
conduction and fluid motion.

RADIATION : Transfer of Energy due to the emission of electromagnetic waves.
Heat & Work
WORK : Work is the Energy transfer associated with a Force acting through a distance.
Denoted by J or kJ.
∆X
Force
e.g. Raising Piston,
Rotating Shaft, etc.
ME0223 SEM-IV
Applied Thermodynamics & Heat
Engines
Heat & Work
Sp. Work = Work per unit Mass

w = W/m ( J/kg )

Power = Work per unit Time

P = W/time ( J/sec OR W )
Sign Convention :

Heat Transfer TO a System : + ve
Heat Transfer FROM a System : - ve
Work done BY a System : + ve
Work done ON a System : - ve
SYSTEM
SURROUNDINGS
Qin
Qout
Win
Win
Heat & Work
Similarities between HEAT & WORK :
1. Both are recognised at the Boundary of the System, as they cross the
Boundary. Hence both are Boundary Phenomena.
2. System possesses Energy, but neither Heat nor Work.
3. Both are associated with Process, not State. Heat and Work have NO meaning
at a State.
4. Both are Path Functions.
Path Function : Magnitude depends on the Path followed during the Process, as
well as the End States.
Point Function : Magnitude depends on State only, and not on how the System
approaches that State.
Specific Heat
Specific Heat at Constant Pressure (C
P
) :
The Energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by 1 degree, as
the Pressure is maintained CONSTANT.
Specific Heat at Constant Volume (C
V
) :
The Energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by 1 degree, as
the Volume is maintained CONSTANT.
m = 1 kg
∆T = 1 ºC
Sp. Heat = 5 kJ/kg ºC
5 kJ
DEFINITION :
The Energy required to raise the temperature of a
unit mass of a substance by 1 degree.
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
STATEMENT :
If two bodies are in Thermal Equilibrium with the third body, then they are also in
Thermal Equilibrium with each other.
This statement seems to be very simple.
However, this can not be directly concluded from the other Laws of Thermodynamics.
It serves as the basis of validity of TEMPERATURE measurement.
A
25 ºC 25 ºC 25 ºC
B
C
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
By replacing the Third Body with a Thermometer; the Zeroth Law can be stated as :
Two bodies are in Thermal Equilibrium, if both have same TEMPERATURE,
regarding even if they are not in contact with each other.
A
25 ºC 25 ºC
25 ºC
B
i.e. Temp (A) measured by Thermometer and is known.
(A) is in Thermal Equilibrium with (B).
Then, Temp (B) is also known, even not in contact with Thermometer.
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
- Formulated and labeled by R.H. Fowler in 1931.
- However, its significance is realised after half a century after formation of First and
Second Laws of Thermodynamics.
- Hence named as Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics.
First Law of Thermodynamics
Also known as Law of Conservation of Energy
Important due to its ability to provide a sound basis to study between different
forms of Energy and their interactions.
STATEMENT :
Energy can neither be created nor
destroyed during a process; but can be only
converted from one form to another.
m g Δz = ½ m ( v
1
2
- v
2
2
)


PE = 7 kJ
KE = 3 kJ
m = 2 kg PE = 10 kJ
KE = 0
Δz
First Law of Thermodynamics
This forms the basis for Heat Balance / Energy Balance.
Net change ( increase / decrease ) in the total Energy of the System during a Process
= Difference between Total Energy entering and Total Energy leaving the System
during that Process.
Total Energy
entering the System
Total Energy
leaving the System

=
Change in Total Energy
of the System
( E
I N
)

( E
OUT
)

( ΔE )

_
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Kelvin – Planck Statement :
It is impossible for any device that operates on a Cycle to receive Heat
from a single Reservoir and produce net amount of Work.
Alternatively;
No Heat Engine can have a thermal
efficiency of 100 per cent.
Thermal Energy
Reservoir
Wnet =
100 kW
Q
H
=
100 kW
Q
L
= 0
Heat
Engine
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Clausius Statement :
It is impossible to construct a device that
operates in a Cycle, and produces no effect
other than the transfer of Heat from a
Lower Temperature Body to a Higher
Temperature body.
Alternatively;
No Refrigerator can operate unless its
compressor is supplied with external
Power source.
Warm
Environment
Wnet = 0
Q
H
=
5 kJ
Q
L
= 5 kJ
Refrigerator
Refrigerated
Space
Various form of Energy
Examples for energy conversion

Application of energy conversion
Basic steam power plant
Internal combustion engine(spark
ignition engine)
Simple gas turbine engine
Engine
• An engine is a device which transforms one form of energy into
another form.

• Most of the engines convert thermal energy into mechanical work.

Heat engine
Heat engine is a device which transforms the chemical energy or
thermal energy and utilizes this thermal energy to perform useful
work. Thus thermal energy is converted to mechanical energy in a
heat engine

Classification of heat engine
1.Internal combustion engines(IC ENGINE)
2.External combustion engines(EC ENGINE)

Internal combustion engines
In case of gasoline or diesel engine the
products of combustion generated by the
combustion of fuel and air with in the cylinder.
External combustion engines
External combustion engines are those in
which combustion takes place outside the engine.
For example in a steam engine or steam turbine
the heat generated due to the combustion of fuel
is employed to generate high pressure steam
which is used as the working fluid in a turbine.
Heat engine
IC engines
1.Rotary engine-Wankel engine ,open cycle gas
turbine engine.
2.Reciprocating engines-Gasoline Engine, diesel
Engine.
EC engine
1.Rotary engine-steam engine ,stiriling engine
2.Reciprocating engines-steam turbine, closed cycle
gas turbine
Reciprocating engine
55
Four Stroke Cycle
• Intake
• Compression
• Power
• Exhaust
56
Intake Stroke
• Intake valve opens.
• Piston moves down, ½
turn of crankshaft.
• A vacuum is created in the
cylinder.
• Atmospheric pressure
pushes the air/fuel
mixture into the cylinder.
57
Compression Stroke
• Valves close.
• Piston moves up, ½
turn of crankshaft.
• Air/fuel mixture is
compressed.
• Fuel starts to vaporize
and heat begins to
build.
58
Power Stroke
• Valves remain closed.
• Spark plug fires
igniting fuel mixture.
• Piston moves down, ½
turn of crankshaft.
• Heat is converted to
mechanical energy.
59
Exhaust Stroke
• Exhaust valve opens.
• Piston move up,
crankshaft makes ½
turn.
• Exhaust gases are
pushed out polluting
the atmosphere.
Operation of two-stroke engine
The two stroke engine employs the crankcase as
well as the cylinder to achieve all the elements of
the cycle in only two strokes of the piston.
360 degrees rotation of crankshaft
completes the cycle.
• The two cycle engine completes its
cycle of intake, compression,
power, and exhaust with only two
strokes of the piston.
• It takes only one revolution of the
shaft to complete the 2-stroke
cycle.



Air Standard Cycles assumptions

1. Cylinder contains constant amount of air and it is treated as
ideal gas.
2. The specific heats and other physical and chemical
properties remain unchanged during the cycle.
3. Instead of heat generation by combustion, heat is
transformed from external heat source.
4. The process of heat removal in the exhaust gases is
represented by heat transfer from the cycle to external
heat sink.
5. There is neither friction nor turbulence; all processes are
assumed to be reversible.
6. No heat loss from the working fluid to the surroundings.

Advantages of I.C engines over E.C
engines

1. More mechanical simplicity and lower weight/power
ratio.
2. They do not need auxiliary equipment, such as boiler &
condenser.
3. They could be started and stopped in a short time.
4. Their thermal efficiency is higher than other heat
engines.
5. Their initial cost is low.
These advantages make I.C.E. more suitable in the
transport sector; motor cars, small ships, submarines,
and small aircrafts.
PISTON-PROP ENGINES
• Nearly all present day small aircraft engines employing piston engine
using gasoline as fuel, and air as oxidizer for combustion.

• Gas pressure inside the cylinder acting through the piston-connecting
rod-crank linkage , applies torque to the engine shaft for running the
propeller , often through a speed reducing gear box. rotation of propeller
produces thrust in accordance with the aerodynamic concept of propeller
theories.

• Power equivalent of thrust is simply thrust power TP=T.V , which may
takes as the propeller output . The power input to the propeller from the
engine shaft is simply the engine brake horsepower(after gear box).
• The propeller efficiency is

ɳ
p
= (Propeller thrust power)/(Engine shaft brake horsepower)
The maximum efficiency achieved by a propeller by accelerating large mass
of air rearward with high velocity(slightly greater than flight speed) is 85-
90%.

• The lost power appears mainly as unrecoverable kinetic energy of air
pushed rearward and friction that are mainly dissipates as heat.
• Mechanical efficiency defined as
ɳ
m =
(BHP)/(IHP) (appx 85% in aircraft engines)

This type of engine has its theoretical basis on Otto cycle.
For a piston engine increase in mass flow achieved by
1.Increase in rpm
2.Increase in engine size
3.Increase both

Increase in rpm causes sliding friction (less ɳ)
Increase in engine size causes more drag, more weight and less
combustion efficiency.

Its use is thus limited to short haul small low-subsonic aircraft which is
operated at M < 0.5



Otto Cycle(SI engine or petrol engine)

• Intake stroke
• Compression stroke
• Power (expansion) stroke
• Exhaust stroke
70
The air-standard Otto cycle is the ideal cycle that approximates the spark-ignition
combustion engine.

Process Description
1-2 Isentropic compression
2-3 Constant volume heat addition
3-4 Isentropic expansion
4-1 Constant volume heat rejection

71

P-v and T-s diagrams
• At the start of the cycle, the cylinder contains a mass M of
air at the pressure and volume indicated at point 1. The
piston is at its lowest position.

• It moves upward and the gas is compressed isentropically
to point 2. At this point, heat is added at constant volume
which raises the pressure to point 3.

• The high pressure charge now expands isentropically,
pushing the piston down on its expansion stroke to point 4
where the charge rejects heat at constant volume to the
initial state, point 1.







73
Thermal Efficiency of the Otto cycle:
q
th
net
in
net
in
in out
in
out
in
W
Q
Q
Q
Q Q
Q
Q
Q
= = =
÷
= ÷ 1
Now to find Q
in
and Q
out
.

Apply first law closed system to process 2-3, V = constant.
Thus, for constant specific heats,
Q U
Q Q mC T T
net
net in v
,
,
( )
23 23
23 3 2
=
= = ÷
A
74
Apply first law closed system to process 4-1, V = constant.
Thus, for constant specific heats,
Q U
Q Q mC T T
Q mC T T mC T T
net
net out v
out v v
,
,
( )
( ) ( )
41 41
41 1 4
1 4 4 1
=
= ÷ = ÷
= ÷ ÷ = ÷
A
The thermal efficiency becomes
q
th Otto
out
in
v
v
Q
Q
mC T T
mC T T
,
( )
( )
= ÷
= ÷
÷
÷
1
1
4 1
3 2
75
q
th Otto
T T
T T
T T T
T T T
,
( )
( )
( / )
( / )
= ÷
÷
÷
= ÷
÷
÷
1
1
1
1
4 1
3 2
1 4 1
2 3 2
Recall processes 1-2 and 3-4 are isentropic, so
Since V
3
= V
2
and V
4
= V
1
, we see that
T
T
T
T
or
T
T
T
T
2
1
3
4
4
1
3
2
=
=
76
The Otto cycle efficiency becomes
q
th Otto
T
T
,
= ÷ 1
1
2
Is this the same as the Carnot cycle efficiency?

Since process 1-2 is isentropic,
where the compression ratio is r = V
1
/V
2
and
q
th Otto
k
r
,
= ÷
÷
1
1
1
77
The thermal efficiency of the theoretical Otto cycle increases with increase
in compression ratio and specific heat ratio but is independent of the heat
added (independent of load) and initial conditions of pressure, volume and
temperature.
The more important performance factors are

1.Heat release per mass of air depends upon both fuel
heating value and fuel-air ratio . the greater heat release of
the beat fuel-air mixture (chemically correct or
stoichiometric) results in max temperature and pressure
rise of mixture trapped inside the cylinder.

2.Quantity of charge per stroke introduced into the cylinder
directly controls the quantity of heat that can be released
and then converted into work per cycle . if the
supercharger is used , the air filling the cylinder is above
ambient pressure and density , hence weight of air
consumed per cycle is greater than unsupercharged case.
Factors affecting performance of
piston engine
1.Design of induction/exhaust systems-pressure loss.

2.Design of cooling system-excess cooling causes heat
loss.

3.detonation/knocking-caused by instantaneous
combustion of a part of the fuel-air mixture.

Normal combustion requires abt 2.5 millisec for
completion. Detonation occurs in less than a microsecond.
Topics covered in black board
1.Reciprocating engine performance
2.Gear box
Turbo-prop Engines
• Aircraft with propellers have high efficiency and when the
propeller is powered withy the help of gas turbine engines
, they are known as turbo-prop engines.

• The prop-engines have reasonably good efficiency
compared to piston engines and pure jet engines for
speeds less than M<0.65.

• Engines with propellers have the disadvantage that, when
flow at the tip of the propeller blade reaches local sonic
velocity , it causes severe shocks and vibrations in
blades.
Turbo-prop Engine
Turbo-shaft Engines
• The turbo-shaft variety was developed to carter to the
needs of helicopters, which were developed after the
WW II and have found use in various sectors, military
and civilian all over the world.
• Since helicopters are relatively small flying crafts, the
engines powering them also need to be compact.
• The engines are normally mounted vertically to supply
power to the nearly horizontal rotor , driven through a
speed reducing gear box , that provides lifting and flying
thrust to the helicopter.

Turbo-shaft Engines
The Brayton Cycle
• The cycle consists of an isentropic
compression process, a constant pressure heat
addition process, an isentropic expansion
process and a constant pressure heat rejection
process. Expansion is carried out till the
pressure drops to the initial (atmospheric)
value.

P-v and T-S diagrams
Heat supplied in the cycle, Q
s
, is given by

C
p
(T
3
– T
2
)

Heat rejected in the cycle, Q
s
, is given by

C
p
(T
4
– T
1
)

Hence the thermal efficiency of the cycle is given by
( )
( )
) 62 (
1
1
1
1
2
3
1
4
2
1
2 3
1 4
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷ =
÷
÷
÷ =
T
T
T
T
T
T
T T
T T
th
q


Now
4
3
1
4
3
1
1
2
1
2
T
T
p
p
p
p
T
T
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
÷ ÷
¸
¸
¸
¸


And since
2
3
1
4
4
3
1
2
T
T
T
T
have we
T
T
T
T
= =
Hence, substituting in Eq. 62, we get, assuming that r
p
is the pressure ratio p
2
/p
1
) 63 (
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
q
÷
÷
÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
÷ =
p
th
r
p
p
T
T


This is numerically equal to the efficiency of the Otto cycle if we put

1
1
1
2
2
1
1
÷
÷
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
¸
¸
r V
V
T
T

so that ) 63 (
1
1
1
A
r
th
÷
÷ =
¸
q
where r is the volumetric compression ratio.
Jet engines
• A jet engine is a reaction engine discharging a
fast moving jet that generates thrust by jet
propulsion in accordance with Newton's laws
of motion.
Basic Aircraft Jet Engine types

Aircraft Turbofan Engines
Main Propulsion Engines
1.Reciprocating piston engine plus propeller-used in small low
subsonic aircrafts.
2.Gasturbine based power plants-used in various subsonic to
supersonic aircrafts.
a. Tuboprop - propeller and single and two spool gas turbine
engines.
b. Turboshaft - single and two spool gas turbine engines.
c. Turbojet- single and two spool gas turbine engines.
d. Turbojet with afterburner- single and two spool gas turbine
engines.
e. Turbofan –low bypass and high bypass-mixed and unmixed
flows- single, double and triple spool gas turbine based
engines.
3.Ram and scramjet – used in hypersonic aircraft or missiles.
4.pulsejet- used by germans in missiles –presently not in use.
5.Ram rocket and hybrid engines – projected for use in orbiting
hypersonic aircraft.
6.Rocket engines – used in missiles, earth-to-orbit and space
vehicles.


Development of Aircraft Jet Engines

• Sir Isaac Newton in the 18
th
century was the
first to theorize that a rearward-directed
acceleration could propel a machine forward
at a great speed. This theory was based on his
own third law of motion.
• As the hot air blasts backwards through the
jet nozzle the aeroplane moves forward.


• In 1920’s a high powered committee in USA,
working under NACA, produced a report that
stated that a jet engine was not a feasible
proposition. So very little work was done in USA
on jet engine development till world war II.
• Frank Whittle patented his jet engine in England
1930. He later developed it in USA.
• Dr Hans Von Ohain patented his jet engine in
Germany in 1936. It flew in 1939. He also late
worked in USA

How Jet Propulsion works


• The key to a practical jet engine was the gas turbine,
used to extract energy from the engine itself to drive the
compressor.

• The gas turbine was not an idea developed in the 1930s:
the patent for a stationary turbine was granted to John
Barber in England in 1791.

• The first gas turbine to successfully run was built in 1903
by Norwegian engineer ÆgidiusElling. Limitations in
design and practical engineering and metallurgy
prevented such engines reaching manufacture.

Whittle’s jet engine that flew
Heinkel Engine by Von Ohain that flew
A modern aircraft jet engine

How the thrust is created for flying

• An aircraft does not fly simply by setting it out on the
runway and allow strong wind to blow over its wings.

• The aircraft is to be moved forward, forcing it to run
through still air at a high speed. Only then necessary
lift is created for it to fly. This is a continuous
requirement.

• This forward thrust for the aircraft comes from one of
two sources: i) a rotating propeller blade powered by
an engine or, ii) a pure Jet engine.

Thrust requirement for aircraft

• Thrust is a mechanical force which is generated through the reaction
of accelerating a mass of gas, as explained by Newton's III Law of
motion.

• A gas or air, used as a working fluid is accelerated to the rear and the
engine attached to the aircraft are accelerated in the forward direction.

• To accelerate the gas, we need some kind of propulsion system. We
assume that a propulsion system is a machine which accelerates a
gas/ air.

• But if we are dealing with a fluid (liquid or gas) and particularly if we
are dealing with a moving fluid, keeping track of the mass gets tricky.
For a moving fluid, the important parameter is the mass flow rate.

• Since the mass flow rate already contains the time dependence
(mass/time), we can express the change in momentum across the
propulsion device as the change in the mass flow rate times the
velocity.


The general thrust equation is then given by:

F = [(m .V)e – (m.V)a] + [(Pe - Pa).Ae]

• Normally, the magnitude of the pressure-area
term is small relative to the m-dot x Vterms.
A Jet Engine Schematic
Jet Engine fundamentally is a Heat
Engine

Combustion is the energy input in to the
engine and is key to the operation of a jet
engine
Fundamental varieties of jet engine
Thrust needs to be created for all flight
regimes of the aircraft:


• Take-off – normally maximum thrust
• Climb – reducing from maximum thrust
• Cruise –normally minimum thrust
• Manoevres –variable thrust
• Acceleration & Deceleration -variable
• Descend –Low thrust
• Landing –Less than maximum thrust

A modern very-low bypass (almost pure
turbojet) engine
Definition of a Jet Engine
• An engine that burns fuel and uses the
expanding exhaust gases to turn a turbine
and/or produce thrust

• The concept of thrust is based on the principle
of Newton’s Third Law
Newton’s Third Law
• For every action there is an equal and
opposite reaction

• An example of this is a spray nozzle on a
garden hose

Newton’s Second Law
F=M x A
• Newton’s second law states - The force of an object is
equal to its mass times its acceleration

• The force of the spray nozzle is equal to the mass of
the water multiplied by the acceleration of the water
when it comes through the nozzle

• This is the same principle used in rocket and jet
engines
Newton in Practice
Schematic of a rocket engine
Drawing Courtesy of Understanding Flight
Where are jet engines used?
Commercial Airliners – Boeing 757
Where are jet engines used?
Business and personal jets - Learjet
Where are jet engines used?
Military Bombers
B-52 “Stratofortress”
B-2 “Spirit”
Where are jet engines used?
Military Fighters
F-15 “EAGLE”
F-22 “Raptor”
Where are jet engines used?
Helicopters - Apache
Where are jet engines used?
M-1 Abrams Tank
Where are jet engines used?
Tractor Pulling
Where are jet engines used?
Speed boats
History of Jet Engines
• Invented in the 1930’s
• Co-invented by Dr. Hans von Ohain (German)
and Sir Frank Whittle (British)
• Developed their ideas separately and at the
time knew nothing of the other’s work
History of Jet Engines
• Germans were the first to utilize the jet engine as
a military tool
• The jet powered ME-262 was the first jet powered
airplane to see combat
– It had a top speed of 540 mph
Photo Courtesy of Stormbirds.com
History of Jet Engines
• The SR-71 “Blackbird” set the current speed and
altitude record for a jet powered aircraft in 1961
– Its top speed is still classified but is in excess of 2,200
mph


Photo Courtesy of NASA
Advantages of Jet Engines
• High power to weight ratio
• No reciprocating parts
– Less parasitic power loss – no need to constantly
accelerate and decelerate pistons
– Less required maintenance

Disadvantages of Jet Engines
• The high speeds and high operating temperatures
make designing and manufacturing gas turbines
complex from both the engineering and materials
standpoint
• These complexities lead to a higher price
• Jet engines do not produce high torque levels, which
is why they aren’t used in automobiles
Six different types of jet engines
• Turbojet
• Turbofan
• Turboshaft
• Turboprop
• Pulsejet
• Ramjet
X-15 with ramjet engine
Photo Courtesy of NASA
Turbojet Engine
• Thrust produced by gasses expelled from the exhaust
nozzle
• Very noisy
• Used on high speed aircraft due to its small size
Drawing Courtesy of Understanding Flight
Turbofan
• Some of the thrust is produced by gasses expelled
from the exhaust nozzle just like a turbojet engine
• Most of the thrust is produced from the large inlet fan
• The Bypass ratio of a turbofan is typically 8:1 (eight
times more air is bypassed than passes through the
compressor and combustion chamber)

Drawing Courtesy of Understanding Flight
Turbofan Cont’
• If one wanted to increase thrust you would either
have to increase the speed of the air being moved or
increase the mass of the air being moved (Thrust =
Mass x Acceleration) ... However…
• It is more efficient to accelerate a larger mass of air to
a lower velocity
• Due to this principle the turbofan is more efficient
than the turbojet
• Due to the lower velocity the turbofan is also
significantly quieter than a turbojet
• Almost all modern commercial aircraft use turbofan
engines (excluding the Concord)
Turbofan Cont’
Turboshaft
• Exhaust gas is used to turn turbine shaft
which is then used to propel the vehicle
• Exhausted gas produces little thrust
because most of the energy is used up by
the turbine
Drawing Courtesy of www.aircraftenginedesign.com
Turboshaft Cont’
• Because of the high speed (RPM) of a turboshaft
engine gear reduction must be used to obtain a
usable shaft speed – much like the transmission in
your car
• This gear reduction also produces torque
multiplication
Drawing Courtesy of www.aircraftenginedesign.com
Turboprop
• A turboprop is essentially a turboshaft
engine that is attached to a propeller
• A propeller is more efficient at low speeds
than a turbofan or turbojet

Drawing Courtesy of www.aircraftenginedesign.com
Pulsejet
• Doesn’t Use a compressor or turbine
• Doesn’t have the ability to produce thrust at
low speed (<100 mph)
• Germans used this design during WWII in their
V-1 “Flying Bomb”
V-1 Flying Bomb
Pulsejet
• Uses one-way reed valves in the front of
the engine to force exhaust gasses out the
rear of the engine and allow fresh air in the
front
Ramjet
• Used for extremely high speeds
(minimum 400 mph)
• Doesn’t contain any moving parts
(I.e.compressor, turbine, reed valves)
• Relies on the inertia of the incoming air for
compression
• Used in the SR-71 Blackbird at supersonic
speeds

Components of a Turbine Jet Engine
Turbine Blade
Basic Components of a Turbine Jet
Engine
• Housing – The rigid frame that supports and
contains the parts needed for operation as
well as the combustion event
• Air inlet and diffuser – The area of the jet
where fresh air comes in, the design of the
diffuser straightens and alters the speed of
the incoming airs

Basic Components of a Turbine Jet
Engine
Basic Components of a Turbine Jet
Engine
• Compressor – Compresses the incoming air at
a ratio of approximately 30:1
• Burner or combustion chamber – The area of
the engine where fuel is ignited


Basic Components of a Turbine Jet
Engine
Basic Components of a Turbine Jet
Engine
• Exhaust Nozzle – accelerates the engine
exhaust to the most efficient and effective
speed for producing thrust
• Turbine – Converts the energy from the
heated and expanding exhaust gasses to a
rotating shaft which is used to turn the
compressors, or in the case of a turboshaft
engine, power the vehicle


Basic Components of a Turbine Jet
Engine
Radial vs. Axial Flow
• Axial flow compressors –
the air travels along the
axis of the engine
• Radial flow engines use a
centrifugal compressor
– they push the air out
radially rather than along
the axis of the engine
Radial vs. Axial Flow
• Axial flow compressors are more efficient
• Radial flow compressors are less expensive
• Most large and high-performance jet engines
use an axial flow configuration
Other Essential Systems
• Fuel System
• Ignition System
• Flame Holder
• Lubrication System

Other Auxiliary Components
• Turbofan – Inlet fan
• Turboshaft – Gear reduction unit
• Turboprop - Gear reduction unit
• Pulsejet – reed valves
• Afterburners
• Thrust Vectoring Systems
Turbofan Inlet Fan
The Bypass ratio of a
turbofan is typically 8:1


Most of the thrust
is produced from the
large inlet fan
Turboshaft Gear Reduction Unit
Pulsejet Reed Valves
The reed valves force the expanding exhaust
gasses out the rear of the engine and allow
fresh air to enter the front
Turboprop
A turboprop is
essentially a
turboshaft engine that
is attached to a
propeller

Afterburners
• An afterburner injects fuel directly into the
exhaust stream and burns it using the remaining
oxygen.
• This heats and expands the exhaust gases
further, and can increase the thrust of a jet
engine by 50% or more.
• The advantage of an afterburner is that you can
significantly increase the thrust of the engine
without adding much weight or complexity to the
engine

Afterburners
Thrust Vectoring Systems
• Thrust Vectoring redirects exhaust gasses to create
thrust on a vector other than the centerline of the
aircraft
• Thrust Vectoring is used in aircraft such as the
Harrier, F-22 Raptor, and Joint Strike fighter
• Thrust Vectoring can be used to increase
maneuverability or allow a plane to takeoff / land
vertically
Thrust Vectoring Maneuverability
Russian Su-37, which incorporates thrust vectoring
Thrust Vectoring Systems
Naturally Aspirated Piston Engine
• Relatively inexpensive
• Limited power at high
altitudes due to the lower
air density
• Speed is limited due to
propeller inefficiencies at
high speeds (>500 mph)
Supercharged or Turbocharged
Piston Engine
• Able to operate at higher altitudes than a
naturally aspirated engine
– Turbocharging or Supercharging increases the
density of the air entering the engine (the
engine thinks it is at a lower altitude)


Still somewhat limited by altitude
Speed is still limited due to
propeller inefficiencies at high
speeds (>500 mph)

Turbojet
• No reciprocating parts
• Thrust is not greatly affected by altitude
• Relatively small frontal area is desirable for
high speed (supersonic) use
• Relatively high-speed, low-mass of exhaust
gasses make the turbojet somewhat
inefficient
• High speed exhaust is extremely noisy
Turbofan
• Because the large inlet fan moves a larger volume of air
at a lower velocity, the turbofan is more efficient that the
turbojet
• Because of the lower exhaust speeds the noise level is
greatly reduced
• The large inlet fan creates a large frontal area which
negatively affects drag at high speeds (especially
supersonic)
• Most effective at speeds below supersonic
(Mach .5 – Mach .9)
• However modern fighters are now using state of the art
turbofans for supersonic flight
Turboprop
• Propellers are most efficient at low speeds
• Produce greater power than a comparable
piston engine with less weight, noise, and
maintenance
• More expensive than a piston engine
• Must use a gearbox to reduce the high
turboshaft rpm’s down to prop rpm’s
Turboshaft
• Used in turboprop, helicopter, and land
based applications
• Must use a gearbox to reduce rpm’s
• M-1 Abrams tank – 1500 hp turboshaft
engine
Pulsejet
• Relatively inexpensive
• Doesn’t have the ability to produce thrust at
low speeds
• Simple construction
Ramjet
• Only used in extremely high speed applications
(mostly military / NASA)
• Only produces thrust at high speeds
• No moving parts
X-15
SR-71