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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST

NOTABLE DISASTERS
MEXICO
PART 3B: EARTHQUAKE
VULNERABILITY OF BUILDINGS

Walter Hays, Global Alliance for
Disaster Reduction, Vienna,
Virginia, USA
MEXICO
MEXICO IS ON THE PACIFIC RIM WHERE A LARGE
FRACTION OF THE GLOBAL SEISMICITY OCCURS
NATURAL HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED
DISASTERS IN MEXICO
FLOODS
SEVERE WINDSTORMS
EARTHQUAKES
VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS
ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
HIGH BENEFIT/COST FROM
BECOMING DISASTER
RESILIENT
GOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE
AND COMMUNITIES
MEXICO EXPERIENCED A M8.1
SUBDUCTION ZONE QUAKE IN 1985
BUILDING VULNERABILITY
WAS (AND STILL IS) A
MAJOR FACTOR IN
MEXICO’S LOSSES IN 1985


Mexico’s building stock, like the
building stock of all countries,
has vulnerabilities
as a result of
irregularities in elevation and
plan, construction materials,
and the underlying soil
HAZARDS
ELEMENTS OF EARTHQUAKE
RISK
EXPOSURE
VULNERABILITY LOCATION
RISK

EARTHQUAKE
HAZARD MODEL

SEISMICITY

TECTONIC
SETTING &
FAULTS
TECTONIC
DEFORMATION
EARTHQUAKE

TSUNAMI
GROUND
SHAKING
FAULT RUPTURE
FOUNDATION
FAILURE
SITE
AMPLIFICATION
LIQUEFACTION

LANDSLIDES

AFTERSHOCKS

SEICHE
DAMAGE/LOSS
DAMAGE/ LOSS
DAMAGE/ LOSS
DAMAGE/ LOSS
DAMAGE/ LOSS
DAMAGE/ LOSS
DAMAGE/ LOSS
DAMAGE/ LOSS
DAMAGE/ LOSS
DAMAGE/LOSS

EXPOSURE
MODEL

LOCATION OF
STRUCTURE
IMPORTANCE AND
VALUE OF
STRUCTURE AND
CONTENTS

VULNERABILITY
MODEL
QUALITY OF
DESIGN AND
CONSTRUCTION
ADEQUACY OF
LATERAL-FORCE
RESISTING SYSTEM
INTENSITY
V VI VII VIII IX
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CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS HAVE
DIFFERENT VULNERABILITIES TO
GROUND SHAKING
INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO
HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING
EARTHQUAKES
SOIL AMPLIFICATION
PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT
(SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND
FAILURE)
IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION
AND PLAN
FIRE FOLLOWING RUPTURE OF
UTILITIES

LACK OF DETAILING AND
CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
INATTENTION TO NON-
STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
CAUSES
OF
DAMAGE
“DISASTER
LABORATORIES”
MEXICO CITY HAS SOFT SOILS
THAT AMPLIFY GROUND SHAKING
MEXICO CITY HAS VULNERABLE
SHORT BUILDINGS
MEXICO CITY HAS VULNERABLE
TALL BUILDINGS
POLICY
ADOPTION
RISK ASSESSMENT
• VULNERABILITY

• EXPOSURE

• EVENT


POLICY ASSESSMENT
• COST


• BENEFIT
•CONSEQUENCES


REDUCING BUILDING VULNERABILITY
REDUCES THE COMMUNITY’S RISK
AN EARTH-
QUAKE
EXPECTED
LOSS
VULNERABILITY REDUCTION
IS A CLASSIC EXAMPLE OF
STRATEGIC COLLABORATION
ACKNOWLEDGMENT: The
vulnerability analyses that follow
are based on global experience
of a major reinsurance company
that was shared for the benefit of
all countries having buildings at
risk in future earthquakes.
ANALYSIS OF
VULNERABILITY DUE TO
IRREGULARITIES IN BUILDING
ELEVATIONS
RELATIVE
VULERABILITY
[1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]
1-2
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
LOCATIONS OF
POTENTIAL FAILURE
None, if attention
given to foundation
and non structural
elements. Rocking
may crack foundation
and structure.
BUILDING
ELEVATION
Box
RELATIVE
VULERABILITY
[1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]
1
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
LOCATIONS OF
POTENTIAL FAILURE
None, if attention
given to foundation
and non structural
elements. Rocking
may crack foundation.
BUILDING
ELEVATION
Pyramid
RELATIVE
VULERABILITY
[1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]
2 - 3
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
LOCATIONS OF
POTENTIAL FAILURE
Vertical transition in
mass, stiffness, and
damping may cause
failure at foundation
and transition points
at each floor.
BUILDING
ELEVATION
Multiple Setbacks
RELATIVE
VULERABILITY
[1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]
4 - 6
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
LOCATIONS OF
POTENTIAL FAILURE
Top heavy,
asymmetrical structure
may fail at foundation
due to rocking and
overturning.
BUILDING
ELEVATION
Inverted Pyramid
RELATIVE
VULERABILITY
[1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]
5 - 6
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
LOCATIONS OF
POTENTIAL FAILURE
Asymmetry and
horizontal transition in
mass, stiffness and
damping may cause
failure where lower
and upper structures
join.
BUILDING
ELEVATION
“L”- Shaped
Building
RELATIVE
VULERABILITY
[1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]
3 - 5
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
LOCATIONS OF
POTENTIAL FAILURE
Vertical transition and
asymmetry may cause
failure where lower
part is attached to
tower.
BUILDING
ELEVATION
Inverted “T”
RELATIVE
VULERABILITY
[1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]
4 - 5
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
LOCATIONS OF
POTENTIAL FAILURE
Top heavy
asymmetrical structure
may fail at transition
point and foundation
due to rocking and
overturning.
BUILDING
ELEVATION
Overhang

SOFT-STOREY BUILDINGS
ARE THE MOST
VULNERABLE
RELATIVE
VULERABILITY
[1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]
6 - 7
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
LOCATIONS OF
POTENTIAL FAILURE
Horizontal and vertical
transitions in mass
and stiffness may
cause failure on soft
side of first floor;
rocking and
overturning.
BUILDING
ELEVATION
Partial “Soft” Story
RELATIVE
VULERABILITY
[1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]
8 - 10
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
LOCATIONS OF
POTENTIAL FAILURE
Vertical transitions in
mass and stiffness
may cause failure on
transition points
between first and
second floors.
BUILDING
ELEVATION
“Soft” First Floor
RELATIVE
VULERABILITY
[1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]
9 - 10
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
LOCATIONS OF
POTENTIAL FAILURE
Horizontal and vertical
transitions in mass
and stiffness may
cause failure at
transition points and
possible overturning.
BUILDING
ELEVATION
Combination of
“Soft” Story and
Overhang
RELATIVE
VULERABILITY
[1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]
9 - 10
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
LOCATIONS OF
POTENTIAL FAILURE
Horizontal and vertical
transition in mass and
stiffness may cause
failure columns.
BUILDING
ELEVATION
Sports Stadiums
RELATIVE
VULERABILITY
[1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]
10
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
LOCATIONS OF
POTENTIAL FAILURE
Horizontal transition in
stiffness of soft story
columns may cause
failure of columns at
foundation and/or
contact points with
structure.
BUILDING
ELEVATION
Building on
Sloping Ground
ANALYSIS OF
VULNERABILITY DUE TO
IRREGULARITIES IN
PLAN
RELATIVE
VULERABILITY
[1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]
1
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
POTENTIAL
PROBLEMS
None, if symmetrical
layout maintained.
FLOOR PLAN
Box
RELATIVE
VULERABILITY
[1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]
2 - 4
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
POTENTIAL
PROBLEMS
Differences in length
and width will cause
differences in
strength, differential
movement, and
possible overturning.
FLOOR PLAN
Rectangle
RELATIVE
VULERABILITY
[1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]
2 - 4
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
POTENTIAL
PROBLEMS
Asymmetry will cause
torsion and enhance
damage at corners.
FLOOR PLAN
Street Corner
RELATIVE
VULERABILITY
[1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]
4
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
POTENTIAL
PROBLEMS
Open space in center
reduces resistance
and enhance damage
at corner regions.
FLOOR PLAN
Courtyard in Corner
RELATIVE
VULERABILITY
[1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]
4 - 5
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
POTENTIAL
PROBLEMS
Asymmetry will cause
torsion and enhance
damage along curved
boundary.
FLOOR PLAN
Theaters
RELATIVE
VULERABILITY
[1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]
5 - 10
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
POTENTIAL
PROBLEMS
Asymmetry will
enhance damage at
corner regions.
FLOOR PLAN
“U” - Shape
RELATIVE
VULERABILITY
[1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]
5 - 7
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
POTENTIAL
PROBLEMS
Directional variation in
stiffness will enhance
damage at intersecting
corner.
FLOOR PLAN
“H” - Shape
RELATIVE
VULERABILITY
[1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]
8
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
POTENTIAL
PROBLEMS
Asymmetry will cause
torsion and enhance
damage at intersection
and corners.
FLOOR PLAN
“L” - Shape
RELATIVE
VULERABILITY
[1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]
8 - 10
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
POTENTIAL
PROBLEMS
Asymmetry and
directional variation in
stiffness will enhance
torsion and damage at
intersecting.
FLOOR PLAN
Complex Floor Plan
ANALYSIS OF
VULNERABILITY DUE TO
IRREGULARITIES IN
INTERNAL PROPERTIES
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
POTENTIAL
PROBLEMS
Asymmetry and
discontinuities in strength will
cause torsion and
concentrate stress around
the opening.
INTERNAL
PROPERTIES
Opening in Shear Wall
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
POTENTIAL
PROBLEMS
Asymmetry and variable
stiffness will cause torsion
and cracking/failure at
staircase and elevator well.
INTERNAL
PROPERTIES
Opening in Shear Wall
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
POTENTIAL
PROBLEMS
Variable stiffness will
enhance cracking and
failure on weaker side of
structure.
INTERNAL
PROPERTIES
Shear Wall or Retaining
Wall on only one side
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
POTENTIAL
PROBLEMS
Asymmetry and irregularities
will cause torsion and
enhance failure at all points
of irregularity.
INTERNAL
PROPERTIES
Different or Irregular
Spans; short columns
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
POTENTIAL
PROBLEMS
Vertical transitions in seismic
resistance will enhance
failure at the “short columns”.
INTERNAL
PROPERTIES
Window Bands Interrupting In-
Fill Walls
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
POTENTIAL
PROBLEMS
Vertical transitions in
stiffness will enhance failure
at the transition points.
INTERNAL
PROPERTIES
Three Story Frame
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
POTENTIAL
PROBLEMS
Vertical transitions in mass
will enhance cantilever
action, overturning moment,
and failure at transition
points.
INTERNAL
PROPERTIES
Offset Columns
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
POTENTIAL
PROBLEMS
Horizontal transition in depth
of foundation will cause
rocking and failure at edges.
INTERNAL
PROPERTIES
Irregular Foundation
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
POTENTIAL
PROBLEMS
Discontinuities in mass,
stiffness, and damping
will be enhanced at all
transition points.
INTERNAL
PROPERTIES
Industrial or Commercial Facility
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY
POTENTIAL
PROBLEMS
Top-heavy structures
are vulnerable to
distant earthquakes
and resonance of thick
soft soils because of
vertical transition in
mass.. Rocking,
overturning, and
foundation failure are
enhanced.
INTERNAL
PROPERTIES
Water Tower
DUPONT
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES
FOR REDUCING
VULNERABILITIES IN PLAN
AND ELEVATION
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES
• AUTOMATED
CONSTRUCTION
EQUIPMEMT
• PREFABRICATION
AND
MODULARIZATION
• ADVANCED
MATERIALS (E.G.,
COMPOSITES)

• COMPUTER AIDED
DESIGN
• PERFORMANCE BASED
CODES AND STANDARDS
• ACTIVE AND PASSIVE
ENERGY DISSIPATION
DEVICES (E.G., BASE
ISOLATION)
• REAL-TIME MONITORING
AND WARNING SYSTEMS