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ررقولا ةذاتسا :

مىلعلا ةيلك – ءايزيفلا نسق

نقر بتكه :

ةنودولا طبار :

www.shaimaaabdelraof.blogspot.com

د : دمحم فوؤرلا دبع ءاميش

2.900

Physics for Scientists and

Engineers 6th Eds, Raymond A.

Serway, John W. Jewett.

Text Books

Chapter ( 1)

Fundamental quantities & Derived

quantities

Physical quantity can be used to describe certain physical

phenomenon.

The physical quantity can be measured or calculated.

For example, ruler can be used for measuring certain

distance & stopwatch is used to measure time.

In contrast, velocity is calculated from

distance per time.

In mechanics, the three most fundamental (

basic ) quantities are length (L), mass (M), and

time (T).

All other physical quantities can be constructed

(derived ) from these three.

Units

Physics Experiments Measurements

Unit systems Accuracy

SI Units

• System

International

CGS

• Centimeter-

gram-second

BE

• British

Engineering

system

Basic Units of Measurements in

mechanics

Time Mass Length

Second(s) Kilogram(kg) Meter(m) SI units

Second(s) Gram(g) Centimeter(c

m)

CGS units

Second(s) slug(sl) Foot(ft) BE

All other quantities can be derived from the basic units..

for example :

هناف ةيساسلا تادحىلا مادختساب ةيئايزيفلا تايوكلا فلتخه عه لهاعتلل

اهتافعاضه وا رغصا تادحو يلا اهويسقت نت :

The Conversion of Units

We can convert any unit from one system to

another by using the conversion factors.

Table of Conversion

Example -1

Convert 12 inches to centimeters.

Ans. : From the table: 1 inch = 2.54 cm

inch 1

cm 2.54

(12 inches) x ( ) = 30.5 cm we find that 12 in. =

The highest waterfall in the

world is in Venezuela, with a

total drop of 979.0 m.

Express this drop in feet.

Ans. : From the table:

1 m = 3.281 ft

so Length = 3212 ft.

Example -2

Dimensional Analysis

The dimensional analysis is important in checking the validity of

any mathematical expression. The dimension of any quantity will

be defined in brackets [ ].

For example the dimension of velocity is [ ] = L/T

Example:

The dimensional form of this equation can be written as:

2

2 1 at x

L T

T

L

L

at x

2

2

2

, + at

0

v = v Show that the expression Problem:

represent

0

v and v where , dimensionally correct is

velocities, a is acceleration , and t is a time interval.

Dimensional Analysis

Ans. :

A more general procedure is to set up an

expression using dimensional analysis.

Example: find the value of ( n , m ) in the

following expression:

Dimensional Analysis

m n

t a x

Trigonometry

Pythagorean Theorem

The square of the length of the hypotenuse of a triangle is equal to the sum

Of the squares of the lengths of the other two sides:

2 2

0

2

a

h h h

A person measures the height of a building by

from its base m 46.0 walking out a distance of

and shining a flashlight beam toward the top.

˚ 39.0 When the beam is elevated at an angle of

with respect to the horizontal, as shown in

Figure, the beam just strikes the top of the

building.

Find the height of the building , and the distance

the flashlight beam has to travel before it strikes

the top of the building.

Example :

Scalar and Vector

Quantity

A scalar quantity is one that

can be described with a single

number (including any units) giving its

size or magnitude.

A vector quantity is one that

deals inherently with both magnitude

and direction.

Note: arrows are used to present the

direction of the vector, and the length

of the arrow represents the magnitude.

Home Work

m/s, 28.0 If a car is traveling at a speed of : 1 Problem

is it exceeding the speed limit of 55.0 mi/h?

The traffic light turns green, and the driver of a : 2 Problem

high-performance car slams the accelerator to the floor.

.

2

m/s 22.0 The accelerometer registers

.

2

km/min Convert this reading to

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