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Photosynthesis

Objective 1
• To trace the primary food source in a
food chain to the green plant
The Primary Food Source
• Green plants always found at the
beginning of the food chain.
• Why?
• The only organisms that can produce
their own food
• They are called producers
Objective 2
• To define photosynthesis
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
• Photo = light
• Synthesis = building up
DEFINITION
Photosynthesis
Process by which plants use water &
carbon dioxide to make
carbohydrates in the presence of
light and chlorophyll.

Oxygen is given off during the
process.
Objective 3
• To understand the conditions necessary
for plants to make their own food

INTRODUCTION
Yummy!!!
What are the similarities
between baking a cake and
photosynthesis?
REQUIREMENTS
• Raw materials
–Carbon dioxide
–Water
• Conditions
–Chlorophyll
–Light energy
Answers
• Review 1
1. An organism that make its own food, e.g. green
plant
2. They make their own food by photosynthesis
• Review 2
1. Textbook pg 19
• Review 3
– Raw materials: water & carbon dioxide
– Conditions: sunlight & chlorophyll
– End products: oxygen & glucose
Objective 4
• To outline the process of
photosynthesis by which plants
manufacture carbohydrates using raw
materials
• To state that food is stored as starch in
the plant
CARBON DIOXIDE
• From air
• Enters leaf by diffusion
• Pores: Stomata/Stoma
• Found underside of the leaf

Carbon
dioxide
WATER
• From soil
• Absorb by root hair
• Enter by osmosis
• Transport by xylem vessel

Soil
Water
Water
Root Hair
To Xylem
Vessel
Water
Water
CHLOROPHYLL
• Structure: Chloroplast
• Green pigment: Chlorophyll
• Absorb light energy

Leaf
Plant Cell
Chloroplast
LIGHT ENERGY
• Chlorophyll absorbs light energy from
sun
• Light energy converted into chemical
energy
• Chemical energy is needed to convert
carbon dioxide to carbohydrate
• Series of chemical reactions

Xylem
H
2
O
CO
2
H
2
O
H
2
O
CO
2

Carbon Dioxide +Water
Light

Chlorophyll

Glucose +

Oxygen

O
2
O
2
Surroundings
STARCH
WORD EQUATION
CARBON DIOXIDE + WATER

GLUCOSE + OXYGEN
LIGHT ENERGY
CHLOROPHYLL
Review 4
1. Water, carbon dioxide, sunlight
2. Chlorophyll
3. It absorb the sunlight/light energy
4. Chloroplasts
5. The root hair absorb the water by osmosis
6. Xylem vessel
7. It enters through the stomata by diffusion
8. Carbon dioxide + water glucose +
oxygen
Light energy
Chlorophyll
Objective 5
• To state the conditions that affect the
rate of photosynthesis
LIMITING FACTORS
• Rate of photosynthesis is affected by:
– carbon dioxide,
– light intensity and
– temperature

LIGHT INTENSITY
• Higher light intensity, faster the rate of
photosynthesis
• After awhile, the rate will remain constant
• Due to limiting factors such carbon
dioxide concentration or temperature

CARBON DIOXIDE
• Carbon dioxide in the air is 0.03%
• Increasing the carbon dioxide
concentration to 0.1% increases the rate
of photosynthesis
• After awhile the rate will remain constant
due to limiting factor such as temperature
and light intensity
TEMPERATURE
• Temperatures below 40°C, as it rises, the
rate of photosynthesis is faster
• At 40°C, photosynthesis begins to
decrease
• As temperature rises above 40°C,
photosynthesis stop as the enzymes
denatured
Other important things that plant
need to grow
• Minerals
– Found in soil and fertilizers
– Magnesium: chlorophyll formation
– Nitrogen: for making proteins

Objective 6
• To compare the conditions for healthy
growth of ornamental plants and large
scale crop productions
Ornamental Plants
• Use for decoration
• Usually grown in greenhouses

Ornamental Plants
• Conditions needed
– Types of soil – sand, organic matter
– Minerals – artificial or natural fertilizers
– Humidity - humid conditions better, by
spraying and misting
– Temperature - warm
– Light - bright
– Carbon dioxide – burning fuels
– Water – watering plants
– Pests – hand pick/pesticides
Large scale crops
• Includes rice, wheat, vegetables
• Relies on farming methods and
agricultural technology
• Plant in open field

Large scale crops
• Light, humidity, temperature and water
– cannot be controlled
• Fertilizers – mostly used artificial
fertilizers, machines
• Pests – planes to spray pesticides over
farm areas
Experiment
Question
Experiment: Testing for starch in
green leaves
• What does hot water do to the leaf?
– Kills the leaf to stop photosynthesis
• What does the alcohol do to the leaf?
– Breaks down chlorophyll – take the green colour
out of the leaf
• What is the original colour of iodine?
– brown
• What does it mean when iodine turn blue-
black?
– Starch is present