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Wind Energy
MARK DAVE PEPITO
RON RON DELA CRUZ
The Wind
•The wind is created by the movement of
atmospheric air mass as a results of
variation of atmospheric pressure, which
results from the difference in solar heating
of different parts of the earth surface.

Hot air goes up
and creates low
pressure region
Cooler air moves
from high pressure
region

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Uneven heating of earth’s surface and rotation
Force Strength km/h Effect
0 Calm 0-1 Smoke rises vertically
1 Light air 1-5 Smoke drifts slowly
2 Light breeze 6-11 Wind felt on face; leaves rustle
3 Gentle breeze 12-19 Twigs move; light flag unfurls
4 Moderate breeze 20-29 Dust and paper blown about; small branches move
5 Fresh breeze 30-39 Wavelets on inland water; small trees move
6 Strong breeze 40-50 Large branches sway; umbrellas turn inside out
7 Near gale 51-61 Whole trees sway; difficult to walk against wind
8 Gale 62-74 Twigs break off trees; walking very hard
9 Strong gale 75-87 Chimney pots, roof tiles and branches blown down
10 Storm 88-101 Widespread damage to buildings
11 Violent Storm 102-117 Widespread damage to buildings
12 Hurricane Over 119 Devastation
Wind Energy Conversion
• Wind power describes the process by which
the wind is used to generate mechanical
energy or electrical energy.

• Wind energy is the kinetic energy of the large
mass of air over the earth surface.

• Wind turbines converts the kinetic energy of
the wind into mechanical energy first and then
into electricity if needed.

• The energy in the wind turns propeller like
blades around a rotor shaft.


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Ancient Resource Meets 21
st
Century
Turbine Evolution
Used for
• Pumping water
• Grinding grain

Mainly used for
• Generating Electricity
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History and Context
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Wind Energy History
 1 A.D.
 Hero of Alexandria uses a wind machine to power an organ
 ~ 400 A.D.
 Wind driven Buddhist prayer wheels
 1200 to 1850
 Golden era of windmills in western Europe – 50,000
 9,000 in Holland; 10,000 in England; 18,000 in Germany
 1850’s
 Multiblade turbines for water pumping made and marketed in U.S.
 1882
 Thomas Edison commissions first commercial electric generating stations in
NYC and London
 1900
 Competition from alternative energy sources reduces windmill population
to fewer than 10,000
 1850 – 1930
 Heyday of the small multiblade turbines in the US midwast
 As many as 6,000,000 units installed
 1936+
 US Rural Electrification Administration extends the grid to most formerly
isolated rural sites
 Grid electricity rapidly displaces multiblade turbine uses
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Wind Power Advantages
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Advantages of Wind Power
 Environmental
 Economic Development
 Fuel Diversity & Conservation
 Cost Stability

 Greater fuel diversity
 No delay in construction
 Low maintenance costs
 Reliable and durable equipment
 Additional income to land owners
 More jobs per unit energy produced
 No hidden costs
Economical Advantage
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Environmental Benefits
 No air pollution
 No greenhouse gasses
 Does not pollute water with mercury
 No water needed for operations

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Economic Development Benefits
 Expanding Wind Power development
brings jobs to rural communities
 Increased tax revenue
 Purchase of goods & services
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Fuel Diversity Benefits
 Domestic energy source
 Inexhaustible supply
 Small, dispersed design
 reduces supply risk
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Wind Power Design
Available Wind Power
The kinetic energy of
a stream of air:

2
mV
2
1
E 
The kinetic energy of the
air stream available for
the turbine
2
a
V
2
1
E   

V
A

= Volume of air
parcel
available to the
rotor

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Density = P/(RxT)
P - pressure (Pa)
R - specific gas constant (287 J/kgK)
T - air temperature (K)
= 1/2 x air density x swept rotor area x (wind speed)
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A V
3

Area =  r
2

Instantaneous Speed
(not mean speed)
kg/m
3
m
2
m/s
Power in the Wind (W/m
2
)
The air parcel interacting with the rotor
per unit
time has a cross-sectional area equal to that
of the
rotor and thickness equal to the wind velocity
(V).

Power is the energy per unit and
expressed




T
A
3
T a
V A
2
1
P  
• Major Factors: Air density, area of wind rotor
and wind velocity
• The most important factor is Wind Speed
(Power varies cubic power of velocity)
- As the velocity doubles, the power is
increased by 8 times.
- The rotor area is reduced by a factor
of 8.
• The selection of site is very critical for the
success of a wind power




Wind Turbine Power and Efficiency
• A wind turbine converts a fraction of the wind
energy into mechanical energy
- A part is transferred to the rotor of the wind
turbine
- Rest is carried away by passing air

• The efficiency is the ratio of actual power developed
by wind turbine rotor to the available wind power
- defined as power coefficient and expressed as





3
2
1
V A
P
C
T a
T
p


T
P
Betz’ Law
• States the theoretical limit for the conversion
of wind energy in wind turbine
• According to this law maximum possible wind
turbine efficiency is less than 59.3 %
• Derived assuming a thin rotor from a fluid at a
speed
Major assumptions:
- Rotor without any hub
- Infinite number of blades with no drag
- axial flow in and out



Power vs. Velocity
•The power coefficient or the power picked
up by the wind turbine rotor is influenced
by many factors:
- profile of the rotor blade
- number of blades
- blade arrangement


Wind Turbine Torque
 The thrust force developed by the rotor is



 The rotor torque is




Where R is the radius of the rotor
2
T a
V A
2
1
F  
R V A
2
1
T
2
T a
 
Maximum
Theoretical Torque
Rotor Torque
•The torque developed by the rotor shaft is less
than the maximum theoretical torque and
given in terms of coefficient of torque
as


T V A
2
1
T
C
2
T a
r
T


Relative speed is defined as velocity of rotor
tip and wind speed as




V
NR 2
V
R
V
rw
 
 
N = Rotor rotational speed,
rpm
= Angular velocity

Also, it can be shown that power
coefficient and torque coefficient is
related by relative speed:
V
R
V
C
C
rw
T
P

 
Types of Wind Turbine
• Horizontal axis
- Primarily of the axial flow types
- requires control mechanism to take
account of variation in wind direction

• Vertical axis
- Can handle winds from all directions

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HAWT
 Lift is the main force
 Much lower cyclic stresses
 95% of the existing turbines are HAWTs
 Nacelle is placed at the top of the tower
 Yaw mechanism is required

Two types of HAWT
DOWNWIND
TURBINE
UPWIND TURBINE
Counter Rotating HAWT
 Increase the rotation speed
 Rear one is smaller and stalls at high
wind speeds
 Operates for wider range of wind speeds



VAWT
 Drag is the main force
 Nacelle is placed at the bottom
 Yaw mechanism is not required
 Lower starting torque
 Difficulty in mounting the turbine
 Unwanted fluctuations in the power output

Offshore turbines
 More wind speeds
 Less noise pollution
 Less visual impact
 Difficult to install and maintain
 Energy losses due long distance transport
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Turbine design and construction
 Blades
 Material used
 Typical length
 Tower height
 Heights twice the blade length are
found economical

 Number of blades
 Three blade HAWT are most efficient
 Two blade turbines don’t require a hub
 As the number increases; noise, wear and cost increase and
efficiency decreases
 Multiple blade turbines are generally used for water
pumping purposes
 Rotational control
 Maintenance
 Noise reduction
 Centripetal force reduction
 Mechanisms
 Stalling

 Furling
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Wind Energy Natural Characteristics
 Wind Speed
 Wind energy increases with the cube of the wind speed
 10% increase in wind speed translates into 30% more
electricity
 2X the wind speed translates into 8X the electricity

 Height
 Wind energy increases with height to the 1/7 power
 2X the height translates into 10.4% more electricity


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Wind Energy Natural Characteristics
 Air density
 Wind energy increases proportionally with air density
 Humid climates have greater air density than dry climates
 Lower elevations have greater air density than higher
elevations
 Wind energy in Denver about 6% less than at sea level

 Blade swept area
 Wind energy increases proportionally with swept area of the
blades
 Blades are shaped like airplane wings
 10% increase in swept diameter translates into 21% greater
swept area
 Longest blades up to 413 feet in diameter
 Resulting in 600 foot total height



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This picture shows a
Vestas V-80 2.0-MW wind
turbine superimposed on a
Boeing 747 JUMBO JET
How Big is a 2.0 MW Wind Turbine?
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0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
KW
MPH
50 40 30 20 10
Wind Turbine Power Curve
Vestas V80 2 MW Wind Turbine
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2003
1.8 MW
350’

2000
850 kW
265’

2006
5 MW
600’
Recent Capacity Enhancements
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1. Hub controller 11. Blade bearing
2. Pitch cylinder 12. Blade
3. Main shaft 13. Rotor lock system
4. Oil cooler 14. Hydraulic unit
5. Gearbox 15. Machine foundation
6. Top Controller 16. Yaw gears
7. Parking Break 17. Generator
8. Service crane 18. Ultra-sonic sensors
9. Transformer 19. Meteorological gauges
10. Blade Hub
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17
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5
12
Nacelle Components
A Typical HAWT
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Wind Project Siting
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Turbines Constantly Improving
 Larger turbines
 Specialized blade design
 Power electronics
 Computer modeling
 produces more efficient design
 Manufacturing improvements
PHILLIPINES WIND POWER PLANT
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Wind
Power
Class
10 m (33 ft) 50 m (164
ft)
Speed
m/s
(mph)
Speed
m/s
(mph)

1
0 0
4.4 (9.8) 5.6 (12.5)
2
5.1 (11.5) 6.4 (14.3)
3
5.6 (12.5) 7.0 (15.7)
4
6.0 (13.4) 7.5 (16.8)
5
6.4 (14.3) 8.0 (17.9)
6
7.0 (15.7) 8.8 (19.7)
7
9.4 (21.1) 11.9 (26.6)
Wind speed is for standard sea-level conditions. To maintain the same power density, speed
increases 3%/1000 m (5%/5000 ft) elevation.
Wind Power Classes
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Siting a Wind Farm
 Winds
 Minimum class 4 desired for utility-scale wind farm (>7
m/s at hub height)
 Transmission
 Distance, voltage excess capacity
 Permit approval
 Land-use compatibility
 Public acceptance
 Visual, noise, and bird impacts are biggest concern
 Land area
 Economies of scale in construction
 Number of landowners

Velocity with Height


Engineering/
Design
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Wind Disadvantages
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Market Barriers
 Siting
 Avian
 Noise
 Aesthetics
 Intermittent source of power
 Transmission constraints
 Operational characteristics different from
conventional fuel sources
 Financing
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Birds - A Serious Obstacle
 Birds of Prey (hawks, owls, golden eagles) in jeopardy
Carnage!
Construction

Operations/
Maintenance
Maintenance
KidWind Project | www.kidwind.org
Yawing – Facing the Wind
• Active Yaw (all medium
& large turbines
produced today, &
some small turbines
from Europe)
– Anemometer on nacelle
tells controller which way
to point rotor into the
wind
– Yaw drive turns gears to
point rotor into wind
• Passive Yaw (Most small
turbines)
– Wind forces alone direct
rotor
• Tail vanes
• Downwind turbines
KidWind Project | www.kidwind.org
 Yaw Mechanism
 To turn the turbine against the wind
 Yaw error and fatigue loads
 Uses electric motors and gear boxes
 Wind turbine safety
 Sensors – controlling vibrations
 Over speed protection
 Aero dynamic braking
 Mechanical braking
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Wind – Characteristics & Consequences
 Remote location and low capacity factor
Higher transmission investment per unit output
 Small project size and quick development
time
Planning mismatch with transmission investment
 Intermittent output
Higher system operating costs if systems and
protocols not designed properly
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Wind Farm Development
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Wind Farm Development
 Key parameters
 Wind resource
 Zoning/Public Approval/Land Lease
 Power purchase agreements
 Connectivity to the grid
 Financing
 Tax incentives

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Wind Farm Development
 Wind resource
 Absolutely vital to determine finances
 Wind is the fuel
 Requires historical wind data
 Daily and hourly detail
 Install metrological towers
 Preferably at projected turbine hub height
 Multiple towers across proposed site
 Multiyear data reduces financial risk
 Correlate long term offsite data to support short term
onsite data
 Local NWS metrological station
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Wind Farm Development
 Zoning/Public Approval/Land Lease
 Obtain local and state governmental approvals
 Often includes Environmental Impact Studies
 Impact to wetlands, birds (especially raptors)
 NIMBY component
 View sheds
 Negotiate lease arrangements with ranchers,
farmers, Native American tribes, etc.
 Annual payments per turbine or production based
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Wind Farm Development
 Power Purchase Agreements (PPA)
 Must have upfront financial commitment from utility
 15 to 20 year time frames
 Utility agrees to purchase wind energy at a set rate
 e.g. 4.3¢/kWh
 Financial stability/credit rating of utility important aspect
of obtaining wind farm financing
 PPA only as good as the creditworthiness of the uitility
 Utility goes bankrupt – you’re in trouble
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Wind Farm Development
 Connectivity to the grid
 Obtain approvals to tie to the grid
 Power fluctuations stress the grid
 Especially since the grid is operating near max
capacity

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Wind Farm Development
 Financing
 Once all components are settled…
 Wind resource
 Zoning/Public Approval/Land Lease
 Power Purchase Agreements (PPA)
 Connectivity to the grid
 Turbine procurement
 Construction costs
 …Take the deal to get financed


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Future Trends
Improvements
 Concentrators
Future Wind Turbines
Wind Amplified Rotor Platform
Disc type wind turbine
 Much more efficient than HAWT
 Requires less height
 Low noise
 Works in any wind direction


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Expectations for Future Growth
 20,000 total turbines installed by 2010
 6% of electricity supply by 2020

100,000 MW of wind power
installed by 2020
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Future Cost Reductions
 Financing Strategies
 Manufacturing
Economy of Scale
 Better Sites and
“Tuning” Turbines for
Site Conditions
 Technology
Improvements
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Future Tech Developments
 Application Specific Turbines
 Offshore
 Limited land/resource areas
 Transportation or construction limitations
 Low wind resource
 Cold climates
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The Future of Wind - Offshore
•1.5 - 6 MW per turbine
•60-120 m hub height
•5 km from shore, 30 m
deep ideal
•Gravity foundation, pole, or
tripod formation
•Shaft can act as artificial
reef
•Drawbacks- T&D losses
(underground cables lead to
shore) and visual eye sore

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Hawaiian Wind Farm “Shock Absorber”
 Install on 2.4 MW wind farm on Big Island of Hawaii
 Utilizes superconducting materials to store DC power
 “Suddenly” increased and decreased wind power output
 Likely to loose efficiency due to AC-DC-AC conversions
"Utility Scale Wind on Islands," Refocus, Jul/Aug 2003, http://www.re-focus.net
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QUESTIONS??

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The end.

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