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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms


and Producing Characteristics
Copyright 2003 Schlumberger. Unpublished work. All rights reserved. This work contains confidential and proprietary trade secrets of Schlumberger and may
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Outline
Importance to Schlumberger
Major reservoir drive mechanisms for oil
and gas reservoirs
Typical production characteristics for the
major drive mechanisms
Typical recovery factor ranges for the
different drive mechanisms
3
Objectives
Describe the importance to you and
Schlumberger
List the major reservoir drive mechanisms
for oil and gas reservoirs and describe
how each works
Describe the typical production/pressure
characteristics for the major drive
mechanisms
List the approximate recovery factor for the
different drive mechanisms

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Importance to Schlumberger

Well logging
Well testing
Treatment design
Production prediction
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Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
Oil
Solution-gas drive
Gas-cap drive
Water drive
Combination drive
Gravity-drainage drive
Gas
Volumetric reservoir (gas expansion drive)
Water drive

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Reservoir Energy Sources
- Liberation, expansion of solution gas
- Influx of aquifer water
- Expansion of reservoir rock
- Expansion of original reservoir fluids
- Free gas
- Interstitial water
- Oil, if present
Gravitational forces
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Solution-Gas Drive in Oil Reservoirs
Oil
A. Original Conditions
B. 50% Depleted
Oil producing wells
Oil producing wells
Cross Section
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Solution-Gas Drive in Oil Reservoirs
Reservoir type
- Only oil phase exists at original conditions.
- Pure solution-gas drive reservoir has no original gas cap
or aquifer.
Main source(s) of reservoir energy
- Liberation and expansion of dissolved (solution) gas
- Expansion of reservoir rock, interstitial (original) water,
and oil are always present but usually minor sources of
reservoir energy for oil reservoirs.


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Solution-Gas Drive in Oil Reservoirs
Reservoir behavior characteristics
- Reservoir rock/liquid expansion (oil and original water) are
main sources of reservoir energy in oil reservoirs above p
b
.

- There is no free gas (original gas cap) present above the p
b

- Pressure reduction below p
b
of oil causes evolution and
expansion of dissolved (solution) gas.

- Liberated dissolved gas may segregate from oil phase
under gravity forces and form a secondary gas cap.

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Solution-Gas Drive in Oil
Reservoirs
Formation of a Secondary Gas Cap
Wellbore
Secondary
gas cap
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Solution-Gas Drive in Oil Reservoirs
Typical Production Characteristics
G
a
s
/
o
i
l

r
a
t
i
o
,

S
C
F
/
S
T
B

Gas/oil
ratio
Reservoir
pressure
Oil production rate
Time, years
O
i
l

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e
,

S
T
B
/
D

800

600

400

200

0
400

300

200

100

0

400

300

200

100

0

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
s
i
a

Recovery = 5 to 30% of OOIP
*??
*??
12
Gas-Cap Drive in Oil Reservoirs
Cross Section
Oil producing well
Oil
zone
Oil
zone
Gas cap

13
Gas-Cap Drive in Oil Reservoirs
Reservoir Type
- Free gas phase exists as an original gas cap
above oil zone
- Pure gas-cap drive reservoir has no aquifer

Main source(s) of reservoir energy
- Expansion of gas cap
- Liberation and expansion of solution gas in the
oil zone

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Gas-Cap Drive in Oil Reservoirs
Reservoir behavior characteristics
- As pressure declines, the gas cap expands downward
and lowers gas/oil contact.
- Expanding gas cap maintains original pressure at a
higher level than in a reservoir without an original gas
cap (solution-gas drive oil reservoirs).
- Higher reservoir pressure keeps dissolved gas in
solution longer; oil with more dissolved gas is less
viscous and moves more easily toward production
wells.
- Expanding gas cap displaces oil downstructure and
effectively sweeps the portion of the reservoir
occupied previously by oil.
- Gas/oil ratios rise dramatically in wells overtaken by
expanding gas cap (wells "gas out or cone)
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Gas-Cap Drive in Oil Reservoirs
Typical Production Characteristics
Recovery = 15 to 50% of OOIP
1300
1200
1100
900
0
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
s
i
a

O
i
l

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e
,

Time, years
G
a
s
/
o
i
l

r
a
t
i
o
,

s
c
f
/
S
T
B

2
1
800
600
400
200
0
Reservoir pressure
Gas/oil ratio
Oil
1000
M
S
T
B
/
D

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Water Drive in Oil Reservoirs
Reservoir type
- Oil zone in communication with aquifer
- Pure water drive reservoir has no original
gas cap
Main source(s) of reservoir energy
- Influx of aquifer water
Types of aquifer
- Edge-water drive
- Bottom-water drive
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Water Drive in Oil Reservoirs
Reservoir behavior characteristics
- As reservoir pressure declines, aquifer water
moves into pore space vacated by oil.
- Pressure decline is relatively slow (stronger water
drive results in more significant pressure
maintenance).
- Gas/oil ratio is relatively low and stable.
- Majority of producing wells eventually experience
water breakthrough; water production increases.
- As wells produce water, oil production rate
declines. Many production wells eventually load
up with water and cannot be produced further.

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Water Drive in Oil Reservoirs
Edgewater Drive
Oil producing well
Water Water
Cross Section
Oil Zone
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Water Drive in Oil Reservoirs
Bottomwater Drive
Oil producing well
Cross Section
Oil Zone
Water
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Water Drive in Oil Reservoirs
Typical Production Characteristics
Time, years
2
0
1
0
20
40
60
80
100
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
40
30
20
10
0
G
a
s
/
o
i
l

r
a
t
i
o
,

M
S
C
F
/
S
T
B

W
a
t
e
r

c
u
t
,

%

O
i
l

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e
,

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
s
i
a

Gas/oil ratio
Reservoir pressure

Oil
Water
M
S
T
B
/
D

Recovery = 30 to 60% of OOIP
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Combination Drive in Oil Reservoirs
Water
Cross Section
Oil zone
Gas cap
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Gravity Drainage in Oil Reservoirs
Reservoir type
Reservoir behavior characteristics
Oil
Oil
Oil
Point A
Point B
Point C
Gas
Gas
Gas
Recovery = to 60% of OOIP
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Pressure Trends
Reservoir pressure trends
0 20 40 60 80 100
100

80

60

40

20

0
Gas-cap drive
Water drive
Solution
-gas drive
R
e
s
e
r
v
o
i
r

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,


P
e
r
c
e
n
t

o
f

o
r
i
g
i
n
a
l

Cumulative oil produced, percent of original oil in place
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Gas/Oil Ratio Trends
Gas/oil ratio trends

5


4


3


2


1


0
Cumulative oil produced, percent of original oil in place
0 20 40 60 80 100
Water drive
Gas-cap drive
Solution-
gas drive
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Gas Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
Volumetric reservoir (gas expansion drive)
Water drive
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Volumetric Gas Reservoirs
Reservoir type
- Gas reservoir with no aquifer
Main source(s) of reservoir energy
- Expansion of original reservoir gas
- Reservoir rock and fluids expansion can be important
sources of reservoir energy for abnormally high-
pressured gas reservoirs.
Typical production characteristics
Long flowing life.
Slow decline in pressure
Recovery = 70 to 90% of OGIP

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Water Drive in Gas Reservoirs
Reservoir type
- Communication with an aquifer
Main source(s) of reservoir energy
- Influx of aquifer water
- Expansion of original reservoir gas

Typical production characteristics
- Pressure declines more slowly than gas drive
- Can flow for a extended period until water production
occurs.
- Water production may cause the well to die.
Recovery = 35 to 65% of OOIP??



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Oil Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
Summary of Source(s) of Reservoir Energy
- Solution-gas drive
- Gas-cap drive
- Water drive
- Combination drive
- Gravity-drainage drive
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Gas Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
Summary of Source(s) of Reservoir Energy
- Volumetric reservoir (gas expansion
drive)
- Water drive
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Exercise 1
Given: Source(s) of reservoir energy

Determine: Drive mechanism
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Exercise 2
Pressure trend
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

Time
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

Time
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

Time
Gas/oil ratio trend
Time
Time
Time
Reservoir 1
Reservoir 3
Reservoir 2
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Average Recovery Factors
Oil Reservoirs
Average Oil Recovery
Factors,
% of OOIP
Drive Mechanism
Range Average
Solution-gas drive 5 - 30 15
Gas-cap drive 15 - 50 30
Water drive 30 - 60 40
Gravity-drainage
drive
16 - 85 50
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Average Recovery Factors
Gas Reservoirs
Average Gas Recovery
Factors,
% of OGIP
Drive Mechanism
Range Average
Volumetric reservoir
(Gas expansion drive)
70 - 90 80
Water drive 35 - 65 50
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Exercise 3
Given: Recovery factors

Determine: Drive mechanism
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Properties Favorable for
Oil Recovery
- Solution-gas drive oil reservoirs
Low oil density
Low oil viscosity
High oil bubblepoint pressure
Higher R
s
and B
o
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Properties Favorable for
Oil Recovery
- Gas-cap drive oil reservoirs
Favorable oil properties
Relatively large ratio of gas cap to oil zone
High reservoir dip angle
Thick oil column
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Properties Favorable for
Oil Recovery
- Water drive oil reservoirs
Large aquifer
Low oil viscosity
High relative oil permeability
Little reservoir heterogeneity and stratification

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Properties Favorable for
Oil Recovery
- Combination drive oil reservoirs
- Gravity drainage oil reservoirs
High reservoir dip angle
Favorable permeability distribution
Large fluid density difference
Large segregation area
Low withdrawal
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Properties Favorable for
Gas Recovery
- Volumetric gas reservoir (gas expansion
drive)
Low abandonment pressure
- Water-drive gas reservoir
Small aquifer
Small degree of reservoir heterogeneity and
stratification
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Exercise 4
Given: Reservoir properties

Determine: Will oil recovery increase
or decrease?
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Estimating Oil Recovery
Factors
Solution-gas drive - API study
( )
( )
(
(

(
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

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=
1741 . 0
a
b
3722 . 0
wi
0979 . 0
ob
1611 . 0
ob
wi
R
p
p
S
k
B
S 1
8 . 41 E
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Estimating Oil Recovery
Factors
Water drive - API study


( )
( )
(
(

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|

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|

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|

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=

2159 . 0
a
i
1903 . 0
wi
0770 . 0
oi
w
0422 . 0
oi
wi
R
p
p
S
k
B
S 1
9 . 54 E
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Estimating Oil Recovery Factors
Water drive - Guthrie-Greenberger study
114 . 0 0003 . 0 538 . 1
log 136 . 0 256 . 0 log 272 . 0
10 10
+
+ =
h
S k E
o wi R
|

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Exercise 5
Estimating Oil Recovery Factors
Given: Reservoir and fluid properties

Determine: Expected oil recovery
factors


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Summary
Reservoir drive mechanisms
Sources of reservoir energy
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Summary
Typical production characteristics
Average recovery factors
Favorable reservoir properties
Estimating oil recovery factors