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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

LECTURE #2
Emon Kumar Dey
LECTURER
INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
UNIVERSITY OF DHAKA
Contents
Agents and Intelligent Agents
Agents And Environment
Agent Function & Agent Program
Properties of Agent
Concept of Rationality

Agents and Intelligent Agents
An agent is anything that can be viewed as
perceiving its environment through sensors and
acting upon that environment through actuators
An intelligent agent acts further for its own
interests.

Example of Agents
Human agent:
Sensors: eyes, ears, nose.
Actuators: hands, legs, mouth,
Robotic agent:
Sensors: cameras and infrared range finders
Actuators: various motors
Agents include humans, robots etc
Perceptions: Vision, speech reorganization, etc.
Agent Function & program
An agent is specified by an agent function f that maps sequences
of percepts Y to actions A:






The agent program runs on the physical architecture to produce f
agent = architecture + program
Easy solution: table that maps every possible sequence Y to an
action A
0 1
0 1
{ , ,..., }
{ , ,..., }
:
T
T
Y y y y
A a a a
f Y A

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Agents and Environments
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The agent function maps from percept histories
(sequences of percepts) to actions:
[f: P* A]
Example: A Vacuum-Cleaner Agent
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A B
Percepts: location and contents, e.g., (A,dust)
(Idealization: locations are discrete)
Actions: move, clean, do nothing:
LEFT, RIGHT, SUCK, NOP

Example: A Vacuum-Cleaner Agent
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Properties of Agent
mobility: the ability of an agent to move around in an
environment.
veracity: an agent will not knowingly communicate false
information
benevolence: agents do not have conflicting goals, and
that every agent will therefore always try to do what is
asked of it
rationality: agent will act in order to achieve its goals,
and will not act in such a way as to prevent its goals
being achieved.
learning/adoption: agents improve performance over
time
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Agents Vs. Objects
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agents are autonomous:
agents embody stronger notion of autonomy than objects,
and in particular, they decide for themselves whether or not
to perform an action on request from another agent
agents are smart:
capable of flexible (reactive, pro-active, social) behavior, and
the standard object model has nothing to say about such
types of behavior
agents are active:
a multi-agent system is inherently multi-threaded, in that
each agent is assumed to have at least one thread of active
control
Rational agent


A rational agent is one that does the right
thing.
The right action is one that will cause the
agent to be successful.
The Concept of Rationality
What is rational at any given time depends on
four things:
The performance measure that defines the criterion
of success.
The agents prior knowledge of the environment.
The actions the agent can perform.
The agents percept sequence to date.
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Rational Agents
Rational Agent:
For each possible percept sequence, a rational agent
should select an action that is expected to maximize its
performance measure, given the evidence provided by
the percept sequence and whatever built-in knowledge
the agent has.
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Performance measure
An objective criterion for success of an agent's behavior.
If the action of an agent putted on an environment causes a
sequence of state changes and the changes are desirable, then
the agent has performed well.
Performance measure depends on the designer of the agent.
A general rule is to design performance measure according to
what one actually wants in the environment, rather than
according to how one thinks the agent should behave.
Rationality Vs Perfection


Rationality maximizes expected performance,
while perfection maximizes actual
performance.
Reference book
Ch. 2 of Russell-Norvig book
THANK YOU