59 views

Uploaded by Moshiur Rahman Moshi

Fuzzy logic is something like, there is another possible way except 0 and 1.

- 2nIntro-FuzzyLogic
- Fuzzy Week - 2 CSCI 3006 Lecture 2
- Boolean and Fuzzy Logic Technical Presentation
- Interval Valued Bipolar Fuzzy Weighted Neutrosophic Sets and Their Application
- New Operations on Fuzy Neutrosophic Soft Matrices
- Decision support based on single valued neutrosophic number for information system project selection
- On Neutrosophic Submodules of a Module
- PPT FUZZY
- 190_Fuzzy
- Fuzzy Logic 1
- Fuzzy Theory
- Annals of Fuzzy Mathematics and Informatics, Volume 14, No. 1 (July 2017). Special issue for Neutrosophic Sets
- 01 - Introduction
- Fuzzy Logic Intro
- A Study on the Role of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Set In
- 408-414
- AN EMPLOYING A MULTISTAGE FUZZY ARCHITECTURE FOR USABILITY OF OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE
- Modern Irrigation Systems Towards Fuzzy
- PALMQUIST.tree.13.13. Mapping Analytic Relations
- Science

You are on page 1of 21

Artificial Intelligence

Lecture #09

August 3, 2008 Artificial Intelligence, Lecturer #07 2

Contents

Expert system

Rule-Based Expert System

Frame-Based Expert System

Fuzzy Expert System

August 3, 2008 Artificial Intelligence, Lecturer #07 3

Introduction: Fuzzy Expert System

An expert might say, Though the power transformer

is slightly overloaded, I can keep this load for a while.

Another expert in the same domain can understand it.

But, a knowledge engineer would have difficulties,

providing a computer with the same level of

understanding.

How can we represent expert knowledge that use

vague and ambiguous terms in computer?

August 3, 2008 Artificial Intelligence, Lecturer #07 4

Fuzzy Expert System

An expert system that uses fuzzy logic instead of

Boolean logic is known as Fuzzy expert system.

A fuzzy expert systems is collection of fuzzy rules

and membership functions that are used to reason

about data.

August 3, 2008 Artificial Intelligence, Lecturer #07 5

Introduction: Fuzzy Expert System

Fuzzy logic is a logic that describes fuzziness. As

fuzzy logic attempts to model humans sense of

words, decision making and common sense, it is

leading to more human intelligent machines.

Fuzzy logic was introduced in the 1930 by Jan

Lukasiewicz, a Polish Philosopher (extended the

truth values between 0 to 1).

Later, 1937 Max Black define first sample fuzzy set.

In 1965, Lotif Zadeh rediscovered fuzziness,

identified and explored it.

August 3, 2008 Artificial Intelligence, Lecturer #07 6

Fuzzy Logic?

Fuzzy logic is a set of mathematical principles for knowledge

representation based on degrees of membership rather than

the crisp membership of classical binary logic.

Unlike two-valued Boolean logic, fuzzy logic is multi valued.

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

0.6 1

0.2

1 0.4 0.8

Boolean Logic Multivalued Logic

August 3, 2008 Artificial Intelligence, Lecturer #07 7

Fuzzy Set?

Classical set theory is governed by a logic that uses

one of only two values: true and false.

The basic idea of fuzzy set theory is that an element

belongs to a fuzzy set with a certain degree of

membership. Thus a proposition is not either true or

false.

August 3, 2008 Artificial Intelligence, Lecturer #07 8

Fuzzy Set?

Classical set theory imposes a sharp boundary on this set and

gives each member of the set the value of 1, and all members

that are not within the set a value of 0. This is known as the

principle of dichotomy.

Consider following classical paradox:

The barber of a village gives a hair cut only to those who do

not cut their hair themselves.

Question: Who cut the barber hair?

Boolean logic: This assertion contains a contradiction.

Fuzzy logic: The barber cuts and doesnt cut his own hair

August 3, 2008 Artificial Intelligence, Lecturer #07 9

Example of Fuzzy Set Theory?

Degree of Membership of tall men

0.06 0 158 Anis

0.15 0 167 Abdul

0.00 0 152 Robin

0.01 0 155 Montu

0.24 0 172 Modu

.78 0 179 Jodu

.82 1 181 Sam

.98 1 198 Ram

1.00 1 205 Karim

1.00 1 208 Rahim

Fuzzy Crisp

Degree of membership Height (cm) Name

August 3, 2008 Artificial Intelligence, Lecturer #07 10

Degree of Membership of Tall Men

Red line for Crisp sets and Blue line for Fuzzy sets of tall men

August 3, 2008 Artificial Intelligence, Lecturer #07 11

What is a Fuzzy Set?

A fuzzy set is is defined as a set with fuzzy boundaries.

Let X be the universe of discourse and its elements be denoted

as x.

In classical set theory, crisp set A of X is defined as function

f

A

(x) called the characteristic function of A.

( ): 0,1,

A

f x X

1

0

( )

A

f x

If x A

If x A

August 3, 2008 Artificial Intelligence, Lecturer #07 12

What is a Fuzzy Set?

In the fuzzy theory, fuzzy set A of universe X is

defined by the function

A

(x) called the membership

function of set A.

( ): [0,1],

A

x X

( ) 1

A

x

( ) 0

A

x

0 ( ) 1

A

x

If x is totally in A;

If x is not in A;

If x is partly in A;

August 3, 2008 Artificial Intelligence, Lecturer #07 13

Fuzzy Rule?

A conditional statement in the form: If x is A; then y is B,

Where x and y are linguistic variables and A & B are linguistic

values determined by fuzzy sets.

Examples:

Rule1:

If Speed is fast

Then stopping_distance is long

Rule 2:

If Speed is slow

Then stopping_distance is short

August 3, 2008 Artificial Intelligence, Lecturer #07 14

Fuzzy Inference

Fuzzy inference is a process of mapping from a given input to

an output by using the theory of Fuzzy sets.

The process of reasoning based on fuzzy logic.

Fuzzy inference includes four steps:

Fuzzification of the input variables

Rule evaluation

Aggregation of the rule outputs

Defuzzification

August 3, 2008 Artificial Intelligence, Lecturer #07 15

Examples: Fuzzy Inference

(2 input 1 output problem)

Rule3:

If project_funding is inadequate

Then risk is high

Rule3:

If x is A1

Then z is C3

Rule2:

If project_funding is marginal

AND project_staffing is large

Then risk is normal

Rule2:

If x is A2

AND y is B2

Then z is C2

Rule1:

If project_funding is adequate

OR project_staffing is small

Then risk is low

Rule1:

If x is A3

OR y is B1

Then z is C1

August 3, 2008 Artificial Intelligence, Lecturer #07 16

Fuzzification

The first step of fuzzy inference; the process of mapping

crisp (numerical) inputs into degrees to which these

inputs belong to respective fuzzy sets.

Example: Membership function of project_stuffing is

small (B1) and large (B2) to the degree of 0.1 and 0.7.

August 3, 2008 Artificial Intelligence, Lecturer #07 17

Rule Evaluation

The second step is to take the fuzzified inputs,

(x=A1)

=0.5,

(x=A2)

=0.2,

(y=B1)

=0.1 and

(y=B2)

=0.7, and apply them to the

antecedents of the Fuzzy rules.

Example:

Rule1:

If x is A3 (0.0)

OR y is B1 (0.1)

Then z is C1 (0.1)

c1(z)=max[A3(x), B1(y)]=max[0.0, 0.1]=0.1

Rule2:

If x is A2 (0.2)

AND y is B2 (0.7)

Then z is C2 (0.2)

c2(z)=min[A2(x), B2(y)]=min[0.2, 0.7]=0.2

August 3, 2008 Artificial Intelligence, Lecturer #07 18

Aggregation

The result of the antecedent evaluation can be applied

to the membership function of the consequent.

Aggregation is the process of unification of the outputs

of all rules.

August 3, 2008 Artificial Intelligence, Lecturer #07 19

Defuzzification

The last step in the fuzzy inference process is

defuzzification.

The input for the defuzzification process is the

aggregate output fuzzy set and the output is a single

number.

Example: Risk is 67.4%

August 3, 2008 Artificial Intelligence, Lecturer #07 20

Recommended Textbooks

[Negnevitsky, 2001] M. Negnevitsky Artificial

Intelligence: A guide to Intelligent Systems, Pearson

Education Limited, England, 2002.

[Russel, 2003] S. Russell and P. Norvig Artificial

Intelligence: A Modern Approach Prentice Hall, 2003,

Second Edition

[Patterson, 1990] D. W. Patterson, Introduction to Artificial

Intelligence and Expert Systems, Prentice-Hall Inc.,

Englewood Cliffs, N.J, USA, 1990.

[Lindsay, 1997] P. H. Lindsay and D. A. Norman, Human

Information Processing: An Introduction to Psychology,

Academic Press, 1977.

August 3, 2008 Artificial Intelligence, Lecturer #07 21

End of Presentation

Question/Suggestions?

Thanks to all !!!

- 2nIntro-FuzzyLogicUploaded bysusasuresh
- Fuzzy Week - 2 CSCI 3006 Lecture 2Uploaded bydrthuhan
- Boolean and Fuzzy Logic Technical PresentationUploaded byagrwlankth
- Interval Valued Bipolar Fuzzy Weighted Neutrosophic Sets and Their ApplicationUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- New Operations on Fuzy Neutrosophic Soft MatricesUploaded byDon Hass
- Decision support based on single valued neutrosophic number for information system project selectionUploaded byMia Amalia
- On Neutrosophic Submodules of a ModuleUploaded byMia Amalia
- PPT FUZZYUploaded byRama Krishna
- 190_FuzzyUploaded byShubham Agnihotri
- Fuzzy Logic 1Uploaded bySenthil Athithan
- Fuzzy TheoryUploaded bykonikaka
- Annals of Fuzzy Mathematics and Informatics, Volume 14, No. 1 (July 2017). Special issue for Neutrosophic SetsUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- 01 - IntroductionUploaded byXtremeInfosoftAlwar
- Fuzzy Logic IntroUploaded byaruchellam
- A Study on the Role of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Set InUploaded bymarijaas
- 408-414Uploaded byymrind
- AN EMPLOYING A MULTISTAGE FUZZY ARCHITECTURE FOR USABILITY OF OPEN SOURCE SOFTWAREUploaded byAnonymous Gl4IRRjzN
- Modern Irrigation Systems Towards FuzzyUploaded byshaikshaa007
- PALMQUIST.tree.13.13. Mapping Analytic RelationsUploaded byedson1d.1gil
- ScienceUploaded byAchyut De
- Approximate Controllability of Semi-linear Fuzzy Dynamical SystemUploaded byEditor IJRITCC
- Fuzzy Smart3Uploaded byRadhika Priyadarshini
- Spring Wire Straightening SPRINGS 7 2007Uploaded byHerman Susanto
- Soft Computing 2015Uploaded bySandeep Roy
- Treesa s1 SeminarUploaded byMathew George
- 00 Intro to LogicUploaded byNico Candelario
- nullUploaded byapi-26502591
- App of Fuzzy Logic in CommunicationUploaded bylyquyen85
- Novel Fuzzy Neural Network Based Distance Relaying SchemeUploaded bysathish2103
- 23186804 Fuzzy Domestic ApplicationUploaded by123sande

- SyllabusUploaded byJaideep Kamboj
- MCS-14-1-08 Multivariable SystemsUploaded byapi-19442940
- Seemingly Unrelated RegressionUploaded byCamilla Olivera
- Introduction to Competitive ProgrammingUploaded byVernon Gutierrez
- 2011 1B Wagner WhitinUploaded byArya Yudistira
- TR41.3.3!00!02-005 'Packet Loss Model' - R Jagadeesan CiscoUploaded byQing Jia
- Modelos-GraficosUploaded byEddisongil
- A Neural Approach to Image and Pattern RecognitionUploaded byaravind44555
- EE 310-Signals and Systems-Momin UppalUploaded byOsama Tarar
- cd0309.pdfUploaded byTabassum
- Artificial IntelligenceUploaded byTB
- Color Segmentation MethodsUploaded byRaviChandra
- CLR ExplainedUploaded byAkshay Mehta
- Interior search algorithm(ISA)Uploaded byfagi2
- Kostas Trends Sept 13 2012Uploaded byRahulAgarwal
- Solution Manual of Introduction to Finite Automata by Peter LinzUploaded byKimberly Greene
- An Efficient FIR Filter for Electrocardiogram SignalUploaded byEditor IJTSRD
- hyperbolic_pdes_notes.pdfUploaded byDevesh Rajan
- ifs2018Uploaded bymohit
- here are the steps required for solving rational equationsUploaded byapi-372576508
- Kalman Filtering With Real Time ApplicationsUploaded byJayaraman Tamilvendhan
- Cluster.pptUploaded byShashank Gangadharabhatla
- Vorlesung 3.3 SamplingUploaded byarseeaa
- AC2-10-MPCUploaded byRaja Balan
- Tuning of PID Controller using Conventional and Meta-Heuristic Technique for AVR SystemUploaded byInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- OM0010 - ADDUploaded bySmu Doc
- Lorentz Transformation for Frames in Standard ConfigurationUploaded byhikol
- Applications of Optimization With XpressUploaded bydzungmai
- CS504C (FE) Digital Signal ProcessingUploaded byMyWBUT - Home for Engineers
- MIT exercisesUploaded bySorin Miu