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CONTROL VALVE - THEORY

& SIZING


The control valve, commonly named the
final control element of control contains a
pneumatic device that converts the control
signal from the controller in action,
regulating the process fluid flow.
. Valves make up approximately
15% of the total expenditure for
the materials and equipments for
the refinery or chemical
processing industry.

. Valves are used to handle
variety of liquids , gases ,
steam, air etc.
SPECIFICATION OF VALVES-
Flow medium
Flow : kg/hr or Nm3/hr Max/Min/Normal
Inlet pressure : kg/cm2 Max/Min/Normal
Outlet pressure:kg/cm2 Max/Min/Normal
Max. allowable diff. Pressure : kg/cm2
Density of medium : kg/m3
Viscosity
SPECIFICATION OF VALVES-
Operating temperature - Deg. C
Design Pressure / temp.
End connection
MOC desired
leak Tightness required
Actuator : Pneumatic / electrical
Max. compressed air available : kg/cm2
Cv :
CATEGORY OF VALVES
ON - OFF SERVICES :- Gate, Ball,
Diaphragm, Plug, Butterfly valves.

THROTTLING SERVICES :- Globe,
Butterfly, Diaphragm, Pinch valves.

NON - REVERSE FLOW :- Check valves.
GATE VALVES -
The Gate Valves are characterized by a
sliding gate which is moved by the stem
perpendicular to the direction of flow.
Application :- It is used for on-off
application. Suited for high temperature and
pressure use with variety of fluids. They are
not primarilly used for slurries, viscous
fluid etc.
GATE VALVES -
ADVANTAGES :
Low pressure drop
when fully open and
tight sealing

DISADVANTAGES:
Causes Vibration, seat
disc wear in partial
open condition. Slow
response characteristic
and require large
actuating force.
GLOBE VALVES -
In Globe Valves disc or plug is moved on
and off the seat.The seat opening is directly
proportional to the travel of the disc.It is
short stem travel, high seating capacity,
large pressure drop & high flow
controllability.
Application :- It is used primarily for
throttling purposes. It may be considered a
general purpose flow control valve.
Specifically very widely used for high temp.
application.
GLOBE VALVES -
ADVANTAGES :
Faster to open or
close, most reliable
form of seating,
throttling to control
the flow to any desired
degree, positive shut-
off

DISADVANTAGES:
Seat disc wear in
partial open condition.
PLUG VALVES -
It consist of body, plug and cover. The plug
is tapered or cylindrical. In the open
position, the bore in the plug connects the
inlet and outlet ends of the valve providing
straight line flow.
Application :- The plug valves are
extensively used in refinery, petrochem and
chemical industries and for general purpose
involving on off services.
PLUG VALVES -
ADVANTAGES :
Normally small in
size, require less
headroom and
available in wide
range of materials.
They provide tight
shut off, quick
opening and low
pressure drop.
DISADVANTAGES:
Plug valve may be
subjected to galling.
BALL VALVES -
It is improvisation of the plug valve. It is
basically a ported sphere in a housing.The
seat matching the ball is circulars so that the
seating stress is circumferentially uniform.
The seats are usually made up of PTFE
which is inert to all chemicals, has low
coefficient of friction and resiliency.
Application :- It is used for flow &
pressure control and shut off and for
corrosive fluids, slurries, normal liquid &
gases. For high temp. & pressure
BALL VALVES -
ADVANTAGES :
Low pressure drop,
tight shut off, quarter
turn operation, easy to
maintain, low torque.
They are small in size
and low in weight.
DISADVANTAGES:
PTFE seats are
subjected to extrusion
if the valve is used for
throttling. Fluid
trapped in the ball in
the closed position
may cause problem of
build up of vapour
pressure & corrosion.
BUTTERFLY VALVES -
They are rotary valves with a disc rotating
at right angles within a pipe section body.
The stem passes through this disc and is
supported by both ends of the body.
The shaft is ensured to the disc either by
bolts or pins. Rotating the stem through 90
degs. Fully opens or closes the valves.
Application :- Low pressure application
where leakage is unimportant.
BUTTERFLY VALVES -
ADVANTAGES :
Simple , compact
form, quick opening,
good controllability,
low pressure drop and
low weights and costs.
DISADVANTAGES:
No tight shut off.
DIAPHRAGM VALVES -
The flexible diaphragm is connected to a
support member known as compressor,
which represent the closure member. When
the valve is opened the diaphragm is lifted
out of the flow path and the fluid has a
smooth streamlined flow. When the valve is
closed the diaphragm is tightly seated
against the seta in the body known as the
weir. The diaphragm is of PTFE.
Application :- Used for corrosive liquids at
low temp. and pressure.
DIAPHRAGM VALVES -
ADVANTAGES :
The diaphragm
completely keeps the
working parts in
isolation from the
process fluids. Simple
in construction, easier
to operate and
maintain.
DISADVANTAGES:
Not for high temp. and
pressure.
CONTROL VALVE -
PRINCIPAL OF OPERATION
It is based upon balanced forces between
pneumatic force from the diaphragm against
a mechanical force produced by the actuator
spring.The control valve works with a
pneumatic signal 3 to 15 psi. The motion
starts at 3 psi and ends at 15 psi.
CONTROL VALVE- HART POSITIONER
COMPONENT OF CONTROL
VALVE
Actuator
Body
Trim
Diaphragm
Diaphragm plate
Actuator stem
Actuator spring
Seat
Travel Indicator
Valve stem
Gaskests
Yoke
Handwheel
COMPONENT OF CONTROL
VALVE
TERMINOLOGY
Flow Co-efficients (Cv) :-
The flow of water (G=1, T= 6 to 34
deg. C) through the valve at full lift in
U.S gallon per minute with a pressure
drop across the valve of 1 psi.
VALVE LIFT %
F
L
O
W

%

EQUAL %
LINEAR
QUICK OPENING
CHARACTERISTIC CURVES
Linear :-
Flow is directly proportional to lift.

Equal Percentage :-
Flow changes by a constant percentage of its
instantaneous values for each unit change in lift.

Quick Opening :-
Flow increases rapidly in a linear relationship
with plug lift reaching a max. value at a low lift.