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Media Planning - A series of decisions involving the delivery of messages to audiences.
Media Objectives - Goals to be attained by the media strategy and program.
Media Strategy - Decisions on how the media objectives can be attained.
Media - The various categories of delivery systems, including broadcast and print media and others.
Broadcast Media - Either radio or television network or local station broadcasts.
Print Media - Publications such as newspapers and magazines.
Media Vehicle - The specific message carrier
Coverage - The potential audience that might receive the message through the vehicle.
Reach - The actual number of individual audience members reached at least once by the vehicle in a given period of time.
Frequency - The number of times the receiver is exposed to vehicle in a specific time period.
Determines the best way get the advertiser message to the market
The goal of the media plan is to find a combination of media that will enable the marketer to communicate the message in the most effective manner possible at minimum cost.
Problems in Media Planning
Lack of information Inconsistent terms Serious time pressure Measurement problems
Activities Involved in Developing the Media Plan
Situation Analysis Marketing Strategy Plan Setting Media Objectives Determining Media Strategy Selecting Broad Media Classes Selecting Media Within Class Media Use Decision — Broadcast Media Use Decision — Print Media Use Decision — Other Media Creative Strategy Plan
Developing the Media Plan
Analyze the Market Establish Media Objectives Develop Media Strategy Implement Media Strategy Evaluate Performance
Market analysis and target market identification
To Whom Should We Advertise? What Internal and External Factors May Be Operating?
• • Internal Media Budget Managerial & Administrative capabilities Organizational Structure External Economy Changing Technology Competitive Factors
Where to Promote?
Establishing Media Objectives
• Media objectives relate to the goals to be attained by the media program, and as such should be limited to those that can be accomplished through media strategies. • Such objectives are often expressed in terms of coverage, reach, frequency, scheduling, etc. • An example of media objectives; Create awareness in the target market through the following:
Use broadcast media to provide coverage of 80% of the target market over a six month period Reach 60% of the target audience at least three times over the same six month period Concentrate heaviest advertising in winter and spring, with lighter emphasis in summer and fall
Developing & Implementing Media Strategies The media mix Target market coverage Geographic coverage Scheduling Reach versus frequency Creative aspects and mood Flexibility Budget considerations
Target Audience Coverage
Population excluding target market Target market Media coverage Media overexposure
Target Market Proportion Full Market Coverage Partial Market Coverage Coverage Exceeding Market
Continuity refers to a continuous pattern of advertising—that is every day, week, or month (food products, laundry detergents, etc.) Flighting is a scheduling method in which there are intermittent periods of advertising and no advertising (snow skis, etc.) Pulsing is actually a combination of the two previous methods, in which a continuous schedule is used, though the amount of monies spent will vary throughout the time period (automobiles).
Continuity Flighting Pulsing
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Reach and Frequency
Factors to be considered regarding Reach and Frequency: The determination of what levels of reach and frequency are needed The establishment of reach and frequency objectives Using gross ratings points (GRP's) The determination of effective reach (the percent of the audience reached at each effective frequency increment)
• The Media buyer typically uses a numerical indicator to know how many potential audience members may be exposed to a series of commercials. A summary measure that combines the program rating and the average no. of times the home is reached during this period (frequency of exposure) is a commonly used reference point known as Gross Rating Points. GRP = Reach X Frequency
Effects of Reach and Frequency
One exposure of an ad to a target group within a purchase cycle has little or no effect in most circumstances. Since one exposure is usually ineffective, the central goal of productive media planning should be to enhance frequency rather than reach. The evidence suggests strongly that an exposure frequency of two within a purchase cycle is an effective level. Beyond three exposures within a brand purchase cycle or over a period of four or even eight weeks, increasing frequency continues to build advertising effectiveness at a decreasing rate but with no evidence of decline.
Effects of reach and frequency
Although there are general principles with respect to frequency of exposure and its relationship to advertising effectiveness, differential effects by brand are equally important Frequency response principles or generalizations do not vary by medium. The data strongly suggest that wear out is not a function of too much frequency. It is more of a creative or copy problem.
Marketing Factors Important to Determining Frequency
Brand history Brand share Brand loyalty Purchase cycles Usage cycle Competitive share of voice Target group
Message or Creative Factors Important to Determining Frequency
Message complexity Message uniqueness New vs. continuing campaigns Image versus product sell Message variation
Media Factors Important to Determining Frequency
Clutter Editorial environment Attentiveness Scheduling Number of media used Repeat Exposures
Creative Aspects and Mood
Creative aspects of the ad may require the use of specific media. For example, television may be required to implement certain types of creative campaigns. Likewise, the mood that a medium creates may carry over to the ad itself. For example, certain magazines may create various moods as they are being read
Flexibility— the media strategy must be flexible enough to respond to marketing threats and opportunities, as well as to adjust for changes regarding availability and/or in the media themselves. Flexibility may need to address the following: market opportunities market threats availability of media changes in media or media vehicles
Budget Considerations—it is obvious that costs must be considered in the determination as to which media will be employed.
Two types of costs must be addressed: • • absolute cost—which is the actual cost to place the ad in the medium. relative cost—or the relationship between the price paid for advertising time or space and the size of the audience delivered.
Determining Relative Cost of Media
Cost per thousand (CPM)
Cost of ad space (absolute cost) Circulation
Determining Relative Cost of Media
Cost per rating point (CPRP)
Cost of commercial time Program rating
Evaluation and Follow Up
Essentially, two questions need to be answered: How well did these strategies perform the media objectives established ? How well did this media plan contribute to the attainment of the overall marketing and communications objectives?
Mass coverage High reach Impact of sight, sound, and motion High prestige Low cost per exposure Attention getting Favorable image
Low selectivity Short message life High absolute cost High production costs Clutter
Local coverage Low cost High frequency Flexible Low production costs Well-segmented audiences
Audio only Clutter Low attention getting Fleeting message
Segmentation potential Long lead time for ad placement Quality reproduction Visual only High information Lack of flexibility content Longevity Multiple readers
High coverage Low cost Short lead time for placing ads Ads can placed in interest sections Timely (current ads) Reader controls exposure Can be used for coupons
Short life Clutter Low attentiongetting capabilities Poor reproduction quality Selective reader exposure
Location specific High resolution Easily noticed
Short exposure time requires short ad Poor image Local restrictions
Internet / Interactive Media Characteristics
User selects product information User attention and involvement Interactive relationship Direct selling potential Flexible message platform
Limited creative capabilities Web snarl (crowded access) Technology limitations Few valid measurement techniques Limited reach