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Raman Spectroscopy: Theoretical

and Experimental Aspects


Course: Independent Study(PH5210)
Advisor: Dr. Goutam Dev Mukherjee

Rajesh Jana
Roll No. 13RS037
IISER KOLKATA

Plan of Talk
Introduction
History of Raman Spectroscopy
Basic Theory
Instrumentation and Experimental techniques
Application
LabRAM HR 800
High pressure Raman study of CuO
Introduction

Spectroscopic technique based on inelastic
scattering.
Monochromatic light interact with matter.
Energy of the scatter photon shifted.
Shift in energy give information of the matter.


History of Raman Spectroscopy
Raman with his apparatus for inelastic light scattering
Why Raman Spectroscopy
Very easy and fast process
Minimal or no sample preparation
Sampling directly through glass containers
Non-destructive analysis
Minimal water interference
It gives qualitative and quantitative
information


Classical theory of Raman Spectroscopy
( ) t 2 cos E E
0 0
tv =
( ) t 2 cos q q
m 0
tv =
?
( ) t 2 cos E E P
0 0
tv o = o = Induced dipole moment:
For a small amplitude of vibration, the
polarizability o is a linear function of q:
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
o c
+ o = o
=
q
q
0 q
0
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) { } ( ) { } ( ) | | t 2 cos t 2 cos E q
q 2
1
t 2 cos E
t 2 cos E t 2 cos q
q
t 2 cos E P
m 0 m 0 0 0
0 q
0 0 0
0 0 m 0
0 q
0 0 0
v + v t + v v t
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
o c
+ tv o =
= tv tv
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
o c
+ tv o =
=
=
Rayleigh
scattering
Stokes
scattering
Anti-Stokes
scattering

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Basic theory of Raman Scattering

Instrumentation and Experimental
techniques

Three Major parts are
1. Excitation Source

2. Sample illumination system and collection
optics

3. Monochromator and detector

Instrumentation and Experimental
techniques
1. Excitation Source:
In modern Raman spectroscopy laser are
used as excitation source because of its high
intensity.

Most commonly used laser
Ar
+
(488 nm), Kr
+
(530.9 or 647.1),
He-Ne(633 nm), Diode laser(782 or 830 nm),
Nd: YAG (1064 nm)
Instrumentation and Experimental
techniques
2. Sample illumination system and collection optics
Instrumentation and Experimental
techniques
3. Monochromator and detector
Instrumentation and Experimental
techniques
M1
M2
Application
Fingerprint probe
Composition can be determined if there are
reference data on well-characterised material.
It usually shows discontinuous changes
across structural phase transitions.
Crystal orientation can usually be
determined.

LabRAM HR 800
Parts Description:
Four basic parts are
1. Laser: He-Ne(633nm),
Ar
+
(488nm)

2. Optics: A filter wheel,
interference filter, notch filter

3. Microscope: 10x, 20x, 50x,
and100x

4. Spectrometer: Gratings- 600
and 1800 grooves/mm



Raman spectra of CuO at different pressures
Pressure dependence of Raman modes of CuO
1
w
a
a
a
a
THANK
YOU