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Y. k. Pandharipande.
Numerical Protections
Choice Of Alternative CT Ratings / Aux. Voltages and
Characteristics in Single Execution.
Enhanced Protection Functions and Related Features.
Data Acquisition Capabilities
Adaptive Protections.
Continuous Self Monitoring.
1. Choice Of Alternative CT / Aux. Voltage Ratings
and Characteristics.
Choice Of Alternative CT Secondary ratings (1A / 5A).
Choice of Wide Range of Auxiliary Voltages (Typically 80
300 Volts AC/DC to cover standard Aux. voltages of 110 /
220 V DC or 240 V AC)
Choice of Several Characteristics and Scheme Options,
For example,
1. Choice of Various IEC / ANSI Characteristics in case
of IDMT Relays (NI, VI, EI, LI etc.)
2. Choice of Multi Carrier Scheme Options in case of
Distance Relays (e.g. PUR, POR, Blocking, Weak
Infeed, Zone Extension etc.)
2. Enhanced Protection Functions and Related
Start up Supervision, Too Many Start, Loss of Load, Prolonged Starting Time
Protection in case of Motors.
Integral 100% Stator Earth Fault, Dead Machine Charging Protections in
case of Generators.
User Selectable Out of Step Trip / Blocking Options for Distance Protection.
Amplitude / Phase Correction and Zero Sequence Compensation through
Soft ware in case of Biased Differential Protection.
User Programmable Trip Logic and Out put Relay Configuration for internal
protection functions.
Logic Inputs for Integrating external protection functions.
Integral Event Logging and Disturbance Recording Options.
3 Data Acquisition Capabilities.
Service Data, Historic Data and Trip Data provided
by the relay on interrogation.
Service Data provides alternative Instrumentation
functions and helps cross-checking Analogue
Historic Data helps refining the settings for
optimum protection.
Trip Data helps analysing tripping.
Event logs / Disturbance Records also help
analysing tripping occurrences
4. Adaptive Protections.
Multi Setting Groups in case of Motor, Generator and Line
Group 1 (Coarser Settings) during Start up and Group 2 (Sensitive
Settings) on normal running in case of Motor Protection.
Group 1(Coarser Settings) during Start-up / Pre-synchronising
and Group 2 (Sensitive / Time Co-ordinated settings) on Normal
Running for Generator.
Multi-Setting Groups can be used for Distance Relays when a
single relay is selectively applied for Number of Line feeders e.g.
when the line breaker is bypassed and substituted by the TBC, a
common relay on TBC is used, particularly when Line CTs are
located within bypass zone.
Voltage Controlled / Voltage Restraint Options in case of Backup O/C
protection of Generators are also examples of Adaptive Protections.
5 Communication.
Protection Functions can be integrated with SCADA /

Enables Common Access to number of Relays.

Enables Data Transfer to Remote Terminals. Thus, Relay
can be accessed / monitored from a Remote Terminal.
6 Continuous Self Monitoring
Enhances Availability of Protection (no silent

Internal failures are alarmed enabling quick
corrective action.

Periodic Testing can be less frequent.