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Chapter 4 - OSI Transport Layer

CCNA Exploration version 4.0


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Objectives
Explain the role of Transport Layer protocols and
services in supporting communications across data
networks
Analyze the application and operation of TCP
mechanisms that support reliability
Analyze the application and operation of TCP
mechanisms that support reassembly and manage
data loss.
Analyze the operation of UDP to support
communicate between two processes on end devices
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Transport Layer Role and Services
Explain the purpose of the Transport layer
Enables multiple applications
to communicate over the
network at the same time on a
single device
Ensures that, if required, all
the data is received reliably
and in order by the correct
application.
Employs error handling
mechanisms.
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Transport Layer Role and Services
Major functions of the transport layer and the role it plays in data
networks
Tracking the individual communication between applications on
the source and destination hosts.
Segmenting data and managing each piece.
Reassembling the segments into streams of application data.
Identifying the different applications.

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Separating Multiple Communications
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Segmentation
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Controlling the Conversation
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Controlling the Conversation
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Transport Layer Role and Services
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Transport Layer Role and Services
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Transport Layer Role and Services
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TCP Header format:
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TCP Header format: Port number
Source Port 16 bits.
Destination Port 16 bits.
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TCP Header format: Sequence
Sequence Number: 32 bits
The sequence number of the
first data octet in this segment
(except when SYN is present).
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TCP Header format: Acknowledgment
Acknowledgment Number: 32 bits
This field contains the value of the
next sequence number the sender of
the segment is expecting to receive.
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TCP Header format: Code bits
Control Bits: 8 bits
ACK: Acknowledgment field significant
RST: Reset the connection
SYN: Synchronize sequence numbers
FIN: No more data from sender
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TCP Header format: Window
Window: 16 bits
The number of data octets beginning
with the one indicated in the
acknowledgment field which the sender
of this segment is willing to accept.
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User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

UDP is a simple protocol that exchanges datagrams, without
acknowledgments or guaranteed delivery. Error processing and
retransmission must be handled by higher layer protocols
UDP is designed for applications that do not need to put
sequences of segments together
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UDP header fields
Source port Number of the calling port
Destination port Number of the called port
Length Number of bytes including header and data
Checksum Calculated checksum of the header and data fields
Data Upper-layer protocol data
The protocols that use UDP include:
- TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol).
- SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol).
- DHCP (Dynamic Host Control Protocol).
- DNS (Domain Name System).

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Transport Layer Role and Services
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Port and TCP port
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UDP port
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TCP and UDP Common Port
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TCP and UDP port numbers

Both TCP and UDP use port (socket) numbers to pass information
to the upper layers. Port numbers are used to keep track of
different conversations crossing the network at the same time.
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Netstat command
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Application and Operation of TCP Mechanisms
Describe the role of port numbers in establishing TCP
sessions and directing segments to server process
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3 way hand shake
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Application and Operation of TCP Mechanisms
Trace the steps in the handshake in the establishment
of TCP sessions
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Application and Operation of TCP Mechanisms
Trace the steps in the handshake in the termination of
TCP sessions
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Managing TCP Sessions
TCP uses sequence numbers to reconstruct the data stream with
segments placed in the correct order.
Sequence number incremented by the number of bytes that have
been transmitted.

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Managing TCP Sessions
Trace the steps used by the TCP protocol in which
sequence numbers and acknowledgement numbers
are used to manage exchanges in a conversation

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Managing TCP Sessions
Describe the retransmission remedy for lost data
employed by TCP (refer to 4.3.3.1)

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Managing TCP Sessions
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Managing TCP Sessions
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Managing TCP Sessions
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Managing TCP Sessions
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Managing TCP Sessions
TCP uses window size and acknowledgement to manage
data loss and congestion during a session.
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Managing TCP Sessions
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Flow Control
When datagrams arrive too
quickly for a host or gateway
to process and the transport
function can issue a not
ready indicator to the
sender to stop sending data.
When the receiver can
handle additional data, the
receiver sends a ready
transport indicator. When
this indicator is received, the
sender can resume the
segment transmission.
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UDP Protocol
UDP is a simple protocol that provides the basic Transport layer
functions. It much lower overhead than TCP, does not provide the
sophisticated retransmission, sequencing, and flow control
mechanisms.
Some UDP applications:
Domain Name System (DNS)
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
Online games

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UDP Protocol
Describe in detail the process specified by the UDP
protocol to reassemble PDUs at the destination device

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UDP Protocol
Trace the steps as the UDP protocol and port numbers
are utilized in client-server communication.

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