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K.INDIRA

Principal

E.S. Engg. College

Villupuram

ROAD MAP

INTRODUCTION

ASSOCIATION RULE MINING

TRADITIONAL METHOD - APRIORI

OPTIMIZATION

GA BASED ARM

PSO BASED ARM

REFERENCES

2

DATA MINING

Extraction of interesting information or

patterns from data in large databases is known

as data mining.

3

ASSOCIATION RULE MINING

Association rule mining finds interesting

associations and/or correlation relationships

among large set of data items.

4

5

Proposed by Agrawal et al in 1993.

It is an important data mining model studied

extensively by the database and data mining

community.

Assume all data are categorical.

No good algorithm for numeric data.

Initially used for Market Basket Analysis to find

how items purchased by customers are related.

Bread Milk [sup = 5%, conf = 100%]

ASSOCIATION RULE MINING

6

I = {i

1

, i

2

, , i

m

}: a set of items.

Transaction t :

t a set of items, and t _ I.

Transaction Database T: a set of transactions T = {t

1

,

t

2

, , t

n

}.

The model: data

7

Market basket transactions:

t1: {bread, cheese, milk}

t2: {apple, eggs, salt, yogurt}

tn: {biscuit, eggs, milk}

Concepts:

An item: an item/article in a basket

I: the set of all items sold in the store

A transaction: items purchased in a basket; it

may have TID (transaction ID)

A transactional dataset: A set of transactions

Transaction Data: Supermarket Data

8

A transaction t contains X, a set of items

(itemset) in I, if X _ t.

An association rule is an implication of the

form:

X Y, where X, Y c I, and X Y = C

An itemset is a set of items.

E.g., X = {milk, bread, cereal} is an itemset.

The Model: Rules

9

Support: The rule holds with support sup in T

(the transaction data set) if sup% of

transactions contain X Y.

sup = Pr(X Y).

Confidence: The rule holds in T with

confidence conf if conf% of tranactions that

contain X also contain Y.

conf = Pr(Y | X)

An association rule is a pattern that states

when X occurs, Y occurs with certain

probability.

Rule strength measures

10

Support count: The support count of an

itemset X, denoted by X.count, in a data set

T is the number of transactions in T that

contain X. Assume T has n transactions.

Then,

n

count Y X

support

). (

=

count X

count Y X

confidence

.

). (

=

Support and Confidence

11

Goal: Find all rules that satisfy the user-specified

minimum support (minsup) and minimum confidence

(minconf).

Key Features

Completeness: find all rules.

No target item(s) on the right-hand-side

Goal and key features

12

There are a large number of them!!

They use different strategies and data structures.

Their resulting sets of rules are all the same.

Given a transaction data set T, and a minimum support

and a minimum confident, the set of association rules

existing in T is uniquely determined.

Any algorithm should find the same set of rules

although their computational efficiencies and

memory requirements may be different.

We study only one: the Apriori Algorithm

Many mining algorithms

CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 13

Probably the best known algorithm

Two steps:

Find all itemsets that have minimum support

(frequent itemsets, also called large itemsets).

Use frequent itemsets to generate rules.

E.g., a frequent itemset

{Chicken, Clothes, Milk} [sup = 3/7]

and one rule from the frequent itemset

Clothes Milk, Chicken [sup = 3/7, conf = 3/3]

The Apriori algorithm

CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 14

Step 1: Mining all frequent itemsets

A frequent itemset is an itemset whose support

is minsup.

Key idea: The apriori property (downward

closure property): any subsets of a frequent

itemset are also frequent itemsets

AB AC AD BC BD CD

A B C D

ABC ABD ACD BCD

CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 15

The Algorithm

Iterative algo. (also called level-wise search):

Find all 1-item frequent itemsets; then all 2-item frequent

itemsets, and so on.

In each iteration k, only consider itemsets that

contain some k-1 frequent itemset.

Find frequent itemsets of size 1: F

1

From k = 2

C

k

= candidates of size k: those itemsets of size k

that could be frequent, given F

k-1

F

k

= those itemsets that are actually frequent, F

k

_

C

k

(need to scan the database once).

CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 16

Example

Finding frequent itemsets

Dataset T

TID Items

T100 1, 3, 4

T200 2, 3, 5

T300 1, 2, 3, 5

T400 2, 5

itemset:count

1. scan T C

1

: {1}:2, {2}:3, {3}:3, {4}:1, {5}:3

F

1

: {1}:2, {2}:3, {3}:3, {5}:3

C

2

: {1,2}, {1,3}, {1,5}, {2,3}, {2,5}, {3,5}

2.

scan T C

2

: {1,2}:1, {1,3}:2, {1,5}:1, {2,3}:2, {2,5}:3, {3,5}:2

F

2

: {1,3}:2, {2,3}:2, {2,5}:3, {3,5}:2

C

3

:

{2, 3,5}

3. scan T C

3

: {2, 3, 5}:2 F

3:

{2, 3, 5}

minsup=0.5

CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 17

Details: ordering of items

The items in I are sorted in lexicographic order

(which is a total order).

The order is used throughout the algorithm in each

itemset.

{w[1], w*2+, , w[k]} represents a k-itemset w

consisting of items w[1], w*2+, , w[k], where w[1]

< w*2+ < < w[k] according to the total order.

CS583, Bing Liu, UIC 18

Details: the algorithm

Algorithm Apriori(T)

C

1

init-pass(T);

F

1

{f | f e C

1

, f.count/n > minsup}; // n: no. of transactions in T

for (k = 2; F

k-1

= C; k++) do

C

k

candidate-gen(F

k-1

);

for each transaction t e T do

for each candidate c e C

k

do

if c is contained in t then

c.count++;

end

end

F

k

{c e C

k

| c.count/n > minsup}

end

return F

k

F

k

;

Does not fit in memory and is expensive to build

EXISTING SYSM

Traverse the database many times

I/O overhead, and computational complexity is

more

Cannot meet the requirements of large-scale

database mining

EXISTING SYSTEM

LIMITATIONS

19

20

OPTIMIZATION

Optimization is the act of obtaining the best

result under given circumstances.

Optimization can be defined as the process of

finding the conditions that give the maximum or

minimum of a function.

OPTIMIZATION

Provide robust and efficient approach in exploring

large search space

Applicable in problems where no (good) method is

available

Most suitable in problems where multiple solutions

are required

Parallel implementation is easier

21

EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTING

Evolutionary computing techniques mostly involve Metaheuristic

Optimization Algorithms.

Evolutionary algorithms

Gene expression programming

Genetic Algorithm

Genetic programming

Evolutionary programming

Evolution strategy

Differential evolution

Differential search algorithm

Eagle strategy

Swarm intelligence

Ant colony optimization

Particle Swarm Optimization

Bees algorithm

Cuckoo search

22

EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTING

Evolutionary computing techniques mostly involve Metaheuristic

Optimization Algorithms.

Evolutionary algorithms

Gene expression programming

Genetic Algorithm

Genetic programming

Evolutionary programming

Evolution strategy

Differential evolution

Differential search algorithm

[6]

Eagle strategy

Swarm intelligence

Ant colony optimization

Particle Swarm Optimization

Bees algorithm

Cuckoo search

23

Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm

Optimization (PSO) are effective population based

stochastic search algorithms, which include heuristics

and an element of nondeterminism in traversing the

search space.

GA AND PSO : AN INTRODUCTION

24

DATASETS

Lenses

Habermans Survival

Car Evaluation

Post operative care

Zoo

University of California Irvine Repository

25

DATASETS

Dataset Name No. of

Instances

No. of

Attributes

Attribute

characteristics

Lenses 24 3 Categorical

Habermans

Survival

306 3 Integer

Car Evaluation 1728 6 Categorical

Post Operative

Patient

90 8 Categorical,

Integer

Zoo 101 17 Categorical,

Integer

26

SYSTEM TEMPLATE

9/14/2014 27

Proposed

System

INPUT TEMPLATE

OUTPUT TEMPLATE

GENETIC ALGORITHM

A Genetic Algorithm (GA) is a procedure used to

find approximate solutions to search problems

through the application of the principles of

evolutionary biology.

28

GENETIC ALGORITHM

POPULATION SELECTION

MUTATION

CROSSOVER

29

Flowchart of ARM using GA

30

Components of a GA

A problem to solve, and ...

Encoding technique (gene, chromosome)

Initialization procedure (creation)

Evaluation function (environment)

Selection of parents (reproduction)

Genetic operators (mutation, recombination)

Parameter settings (practice and art)

Simple Genetic Algorithm

{

initialize population;

evaluate population;

while Termination Criteria Not Satisfied

{

select parents for reproduction;

perform recombination and mutation;

evaluate population;

}

}

The GA Cycle of Reproduction

reproduction

population evaluation

modification

discard

deleted

members

parents

children

modified

children

evaluated children

Population

Chromosomes could be:

Bit strings (0101 ... 1100)

Real numbers (43.2 -33.1 ... 0.0 89.2)

Permutations of element (E11 E3 E7 ... E1 E15)

Lists of rules (R1 R2 R3 ... R22 R23)

Program elements (genetic programming)

... any data structure ...

population

Reproduction

reproduction

population

parents

children

Parents are selected at random with selection chances

biased in relation to chromosome evaluations.

Chromosome Modification

modification

children

Modifications are stochastically triggered

Operator types are:

Mutation

Crossover (recombination)

modified children

Mutation: Local Modification

Before: (1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0)

After: (0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0)

Before: (1.38 -69.4 326.44 0.1)

After: (1.38 -67.5 326.44 0.1)

Causes movement in the search space

(local or global)

Restores lost information to the population

Crossover: Recombination

Crossover is a critical feature of genetic

algorithms:

It greatly accelerates search early in evolution of

a population

Evaluation

The evaluator decodes a chromosome and assigns it

a fitness measure

The evaluator is the only link between a classical GA

and the problem it is solving

evaluation

evaluated

children

modified

children

Deletion

Generational GA:

entire populations replaced with each iteration

Steady-state GA:

a few members replaced each generation

population

discard

discarded members

GA based ARM

Parameter Tuning for ARM

GA with Elitism

Adaptive GA

41

PARAMETERS OF GA

Parameter

Name

Parameter Role

Population Size Fixes the number of chromosomes and

indirectly the crossover

Selection

Selection of the chromosomes for

crossover

Mutation rate (p

m

) The mutation operation is based on

mutation rate

Crossover rate (p

c

) The crossover points is fixed by

crossover rate

Minimum support

Minimum confidence

Set by the user for fitness calculation

42

ARM by Parameter Tuning

Methodology

Selection : Tournament

Crossover Probability : Fixed ( Tested with 3

values)

Mutation Probability : No Mutation

Fitness Function :

Population : Fixed (Tested with 3

values)

43

RESULT ANALYSIS

Population Size Vs Accuracy for

ARM with GA

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

Lenses Haberman Car

Evaluation

Postop Zoo

P

r

e

d

i

c

t

i

v

e

A

c

c

u

r

a

c

y

%

Datasets

No. of Instances

No. of Instances *1.25

No. of Instanses * 1.5

44

RESULT ANALYSIS

Minimum Support and Confidence Vs Accuracy

for ARM with GA

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

sup=0.2 con=0.2 sup=0.9 con=0.9 sup=0.9 con=0.2 sup=0.2 con=0.9

P

r

e

d

i

c

t

i

v

e

A

c

c

u

r

a

c

y

%

Minimum Support and Confidence

Lenses

Haberman

Car Evaluation

Postop

Zoo

45

RESULT ANALYSIS

Pc = .25 Pc = .5 Pc = .75

Accuracy

%

No. of

Generations

Accuracy

%

No. of

Generations

Accuracy

%

No. of

Generations

Lenses 95 8 95 16 95 13

Haberman 69 77 71 83 70 80

Car

Evaluation

80 80 81 83 81 85

Post

Operative

Patient

74 57

74

63 73 68

Zoo 81 90 80 88

81

85

Comparison based on variation in Crossover Probability

for Arm using GA

46

GA based ARM

Parameter Tuning for ARM

GA with Elitism

Adaptive GA

47

Concept of Elitism

Elitism

Mating Pool

Selection

Crossover

Mutation

Elite

New

Solutions

Population

48

Predictive Accuracy for Mining AR based on GA with

Elitism

RESULTS ANALYSIS

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Lenses Habermans

Survival

Car Evaluation Po-opert Care Zoo

P

r

e

i

c

t

i

v

e

A

c

c

u

r

a

c

y

(

%

)

Datasets

GA

Elitism

GA

49

GA based ARM

Parameter Tuning for ARM

GA with Elitism

Adaptive GA

50

MINING AR USING AGA

Methodology

Selection : Roulette Wheel

Crossover Probability : Fixed

Mutation Probability :

Fitness Function :

Population : Fixed

51

FLOWCHART OF AGA

SELF ADAPTIVE

Max Generation?

Initial Population

Evaluate Fitness

Select Survivors

Crossover

Output Results

Mutation

52

INFERENCES

Accuracy comparison between GA, AGA and GA with

parameters set to termination values of AGA

RESULT ANALYSIS

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Lenses Habermans

Survival

Car Evaluation Po-opert Care Zoo

P

r

e

d

i

c

t

i

v

e

A

c

c

u

r

a

c

y

(

%

)

Datasets

GA

AGA

Ga with

AGA

53

PARTCILE SWARM OPTIMIZATION

PSOs mechanism is inspired by the social and

cooperative behavior displayed by various

species like birds, fish etc including human

beings.

54

Updation of velocity of

particle in each Iteration

-Particle

- Best particle of

the swarm

PARTCILE SWARM OPTIMIZATION

Generation 1

Generation 2

Target

(Solution)

Generation N

55

Introduction to the PSO: Algorithm

1. Create a population of agents (particles) uniformly

distributed over X

2. Evaluate each particles position according to the objective

function

3. If a particles current position is better than its previous

best position, update it

4. Determine the best particle (according to the particles

previous best positions)

Introduction to the PSO: Algorithm

5. Update particles velocities:

6. Move particles to their new positions:

5. Go to step 2 until stopping criteria are satisfied

Velocity Updation in PSO

58

PSO STATES

Exploration Exploitation

Particle

Best Particle

of Swarm

59

PSO STATES

Convergence Jumping Out

60

Introduction to the PSO: Algorithm -

Example

Introduction to the PSO: Algorithm -

Example

Introduction to the PSO: Algorithm -

Example

Introduction to the PSO: Algorithm -

Example

Introduction to the PSO: Algorithm -

Example

Introduction to the PSO: Algorithm -

Example

Introduction to the PSO: Algorithm -

Example

Introduction to the PSO: Algorithm -

Example

Introduction to the PSO: Algorithm

Characteristics

Advantages

Simple implementation

Easily parallelized for concurrent processing

Very few algorithm parameters

Very efficient global search algorithm

Disadvantages

Tendency to a fast and premature convergence in mid

optimum points

Slow convergence in refined search stage (weak local search

ability)

PSO based ARM

Modifications in

methodology

Parameter Tuning

PSO & WPSO

CPSO

SAPSO1 & 2

NPSO

SAPSO1 & 2

70

Mining ARs using PSO

Methodology

Each data itemset are represented as particles

The particles moves based on velocity

The particles position are updated based on

Weighted PSO

The velocity update equation is modified as

71

Flow chart depicting the General PSO Algorithm:

For each particles position (p)

evaluate fitness

If fitness(p) better than

fitness(pbest) then pbest= p

L

o

o

p

u

n

t

i

l

a

l

l

p

a

r

t

i

c

l

e

s

e

x

h

a

u

s

t

Set best of pBests as gBest

Update particles velocity and

position

L

o

o

p

u

n

t

i

l

m

a

x

i

t

e

r

Start

Initialize particles with random position

and velocity vectors.

Stop: giving gBest, optimal solution.

FLOWCHART OF PSO

72

RESULTS ANALYSIS

Execution Time Comparison Between GA and PSO

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Lenses Post Operative

Patient

Zoo Haberman's

Survival

Car Evaluation

E

x

e

c

u

t

i

o

n

T

i

m

e

(

s

)

Datasets

GA

PSO

73

Predictive Accuracy Comparison by Altering Inertia

Weights

RESULTS ANALYSIS

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

w=0.2 w=0.3 w=0.4 w=0.5 w=0.6 w=0.7 w=0.8 w=0.9

P

r

e

d

i

c

t

i

v

e

A

c

c

u

r

a

c

y

%

Inertia Weight

Lenses

Haberma's Survival

Car Evaluation

Po-opert Care

Zoo

74

PSO based ARM

Modifications in

methodology

Parameter Tuning

PSO & WPSO

CPSO

SAPSO1 & 2

NPSO

SAPSO1 & 2

75

MINING ARS USING CHAOTIC PSO

The new chaotic map model is formulated as

Methodology

Initial point u

0

and v

0

to 0.1

The velocity of each particle is updated by

76

RESULT ANALYSIS

Predictive Accuracy Comparison of CPSO with PSO

75

80

85

90

95

100

105

Lenses Car Evaluation Habermans

Survival

Po-opert Care Zoo

P

r

e

d

i

c

t

i

v

e

A

c

c

u

r

a

c

y

%

Datasets

PSO

CPSO

77

PSO based ARM

Modifications in

methodology

Parameter Tuning

PSO & WPSO

CPSO

SAPSO1 & 2

NPSO

SAPSO1 & 2

78

The concept of local best particle (lbest) replacing

the particle best (pbest) is introduced

The neighborhood best (lbest) selection is as

follows;

Calculate the distance of the current particle

from other particles

Find the nearest m particles as the neighbor of

the current particle based on distance

calculated

Choose the local optimum lbest among the

neighborhood in terms of fitness values

Mining ARs Using NPSO

Methodology

79

FLOWFCHART FOR NPSO

Compute x

i

(k+1)

Compute (f(x

i

(k+1))

Reorder the particles

Generate neighborhoods I =1

k K

i = i +1

K = k+1

Start

K =1 ,Initialize x

i

(k), v

i

(k)

Compute f(x

i

(k))

Determine best particles in the

neighborhood of i

Update previous best if

necessary

I N

Stop

80

RESULT ANALYSIS

Predictive Accuracy Comparison for Dynamic

Neighborhood selection in PSO

75

80

85

90

95

100

Lenses Habermans Survival Car Evaluation Po-opert Care Zoo

P

r

e

d

i

c

t

i

v

e

A

c

c

u

r

a

c

y

(

%

)

Datasets

PSO

NPSO

81

PSO based ARM

Modifications in

methodology

Parameter Tuning

PSO & WPSO

CPSO

SAPSO1 & 2

NPSO

SACPSO

82

ROLE OF CONTROL PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Parameter Role

Inertia weight () Controls the impact of the

velocity history into the new

velocity

Acceleration

Coefficient (c

1

)

Maintains the diversity of swarm

Acceleration

Coefficient (c

2

)

Convergence towards the global

optima

83

MINING AR USING SAPSO

The Inertia Weight in the velocity update equation is made

adaptive.

SAPSO1 :

SAPSO2 :

SACPSO :

where, g is the generation index representing the current

number of evolutionary generations, and G is a redefined

maximum number of generations. Here, the maximal and

minimal weights

max

and

min

are set to 0.9 and 0.4, based on

experimental study.

84

RESULT ANALYSIS

Predictive Accuracy Comparison of SAPSO with PSO for Lenses

Dataset

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

10 20 40 60 80 100

P

r

e

d

i

c

t

i

v

e

A

c

c

u

a

r

c

y

(

%

)

No. of Iterations

PSO

SAPSO1

SAPSO2

SACPSO

85

RESULT ANALYSIS

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

10 20 40 60 80 100

P

r

e

d

i

c

t

i

v

e

A

c

c

u

r

a

c

y

(

%

)

No. o Iterations

PSO

SAPSO1

SAPSO2

SACPSO

Predictive Accuracy Comparison of SAPSO with PSO for

Habermans Survival Dataset

86

RESULT ANALYSIS

42

52

62

72

82

92

10 20 40 60 80 100

P

r

e

d

i

c

t

i

v

e

A

c

c

u

r

a

c

y

(

%

)

No. of Iterations

PSO

SAPSO1

SAPSO2

SACPSO

Predictive Accuracy Comparison of SAPSO with PSO for Car

Evaluation Dataset

87

RESULT ANALYSIS

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

10 20 40 60 80 100

P

r

e

d

i

c

t

i

v

e

A

c

c

u

r

a

c

y

(

%

)

No. of Iterations

PSO

SAPSO1

SAPSO2

SACPSO

Predictive Accuracy Comparison of SAPSO with PSO for Zoo

Dataset

88

RESULT ANALYSIS

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

100

10 20 40 60 80 100

P

r

e

d

i

c

t

i

v

e

A

c

c

u

r

a

c

y

(

%

)

No. of Iterations

PSO

SAPSO1

SAPSO2

SACPSO

Predictive Accuracy Comparison of SAPSO with PSO for

Postoperative Patient Dataset

89

ARM with PSO and GA

PSO + SFLA

GPSO (GA/PSO Hybrid)

Adaptive PSO (data dependent)

90

PSO + SFLA

MINING AR USING APSO

Estimation of Evolutionary State done using distance

measure d

i

and estimator e

Classify into which state particle belongs and adapt the

acceleration coefficients and Inertia Weight

Exploration

Exploitation

Convergence

Jumping Out

91

MINING AR USING APSO

Adapt the acceleration coefficients as given in table

92

State/Acceleration

Coefficient

c

1

c

2

Exploration Increase by Decrease by

Exploitation Increase by Decrease by

Convergence Increase by Increase by

Jumping out Decrease by Increase by

The Inertia Weight is adjusted as given in equation

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49

E

v

a

l

u

a

t

i

o

n

a

c

t

o

r

(

e

)

Iteration No.

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52 55 58 61

C

o

e

f

f

i

c

i

e

n

t

V

a

l

u

e

Generation Number

C1

C2

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

18

1

5

2

2

2

9

3

6

4

3

5

0

5

7

6

4

7

1

7

8

8

5

9

2

9

9

I

n

e

r

t

i

a

W

e

i

g

h

t

Iterations

Parameter Adaption

93

Predictive Accuracy comparison of Adaptive PSO with

PSO

RESULT ANALYSIS

75

80

85

90

95

100

105

Lenses Car

Evaluation

Habermans

Survival

Po-opert

Care

Zoo

P

r

e

d

i

c

t

i

v

e

A

c

c

u

r

a

c

y

(

%

)

PSO

APSO

94

ARM with PSO and GA

PSO + SFLA

GPSO (GA/PSO Hybrid)

Adaptive PSO (data dependent)

95

PSO + SFLA

HYBRID GA/ PSO (GPSO) MODEL

Genetic

Algorithm

Particle Swarm

Optimization

Advantages

Global Optimization Converges Easily

GA works on a

population of

possible solution

PSO have no

overlapping and

mutation

calculation

they do not tend to

be easily trapped

by local optima

Memory

Disadvantages

Cannot assure

constant

optimisation

response times

The method easily

suffers from the

partial optimism

Mutation and

Crossover at times

creates children

faraway from good

solutions

Weak local search

ability

96

HYBRID GA/ PSO (GPSO) MODEL

Genetic

Algorithm

Particle

Swarm

Optimization

Evaluate

Fitness

Upper

Lower

Initial

Population

Ranked

Population

Updated

Population

97

x <- copy(x_best)

For 1 to Elite

x <- Select an Individual

x <- Update Velocity

x <- Update Position

x1 <- Select an Individual

x2 <- Select an Individual

Crossover(x1, x2)

Mutate(x1, x2)

For 1 to (pop_size-Elite) *

breed_Ratio

For 1 to (pop_size-Elite)*(1-

Breed_Ratio

HYBRID GA/ PSO (GPSO) MODEL

98

RESULT ANALYSIS

Predictive Accuracy Comparison Of GPSO with GA

and PSO

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Car Haberman Lens PO Care Zoo

P

r

e

d

i

c

t

i

v

e

A

c

c

u

r

a

c

y

(

%

)

GA

PSO

GPSO

99

ARM with PSO and GA

PSO + SFLA

GPSO (GA/PSO Hybrid)

Adaptive PSO (data dependent)

100

PSO + SFLA

Mining AR using PSO +SFLA

Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm (SFLA) is adopted to

perform the local search

Here the particles are allowed to gain some

experience, through a local search, before being

involved in the evolutionary process

The shuffling process allows the particles to gain

information about the global best.

101

FLOWCHART FOR PSO +SFLA

Generation of initial population(P) and evaluating

the fitness of each particle

Velocity and position updation of particles

Distribution of frog into M memeplexes

Iterative Updating of worst frog in each

memeplexes

Combining all frogs to form a new population

Termination

criteria satisfied?

Determine the best solution

Sorting the population in descending order in

terms of fitness value

SFLA

102

SHUFFLED FROG LEAPING

ALGORITHM (SFLA)

9/14/2014 103

14-09-2014 104

Frog 1

Frog 2

Frog 3

Frog 7

Frog 6

Frog 5

Frog 4

Memeplex 1

Memeplex 2

Memeplex 3

Frog 8

Sorted Frogs

X

b

- Position of the group best /global best

X

w

- Position of the worst frog in the group

D

i

- Calculated new position of the worst frog

The position of the particles with worst fitness is

modified using

Updation of Worst Particles

105

80

82

84

86

88

90

92

94

96

98

100

Lenses Haberman Car Postop Zoo

P

r

e

d

i

c

t

i

v

e

A

c

c

u

r

a

c

y

Datasets

PSO

APSO

PSO+SFLA

APSO+SFLA

RESULT ANALYSIS

Predictive Accuracy Comparison

106

ARM with PSO and GA

PSO + SFLA

GPSO (GA/PSO Hybrid)

Adaptive PSO (data dependent)

107

PSO + SFLA

QUANTUM BEHAVED PARTICLE

SWARM OPTIMIZATION

As per classical PSO, the state of a particle is depicted by

its position vector (x

i

) and velocity vector (v

i

) which

determine the trajectory of the particle.

In Quantum Laws of Mechanics, according to Uncertainty

Principle, x

i

and v

i

cannot be determined simultaneously.

In the quantum model of PSO, the state of a particle is

depicted by wave- function (x,t).

9/14/2014 108

QUANTUM BEHAVED PARTICLE

SWARM OPTIMIZATION

9/14/2014 109

Start

Initialize the swarm

Calculate mean best (mbest)

Update particle position

Update local best

Update global best

Termination

criteria

reached

Stop

No

Yes

QUANTUM BEHAVED PARTICLE

SWARM OPTIMIZATION

9/14/2014 110

QUANTUM BEHAVED PARTICLE

SWARM OPTIMIZATION

9/14/2014 111

QUANTUM BEHAVED PARTICLE

SWARM OPTIMIZATION

9/14/2014 112

28-08-2013

113

Predictive Accuracy -measures the effectiveness of the rules mined

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

Comparison of the Predictive Accuracy

Achieved by All Methods

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

105

Lenses Habermans

Survival

Car Evaluation Po-opert Care Zoo

P

r

e

d

i

c

t

i

v

e

A

c

c

u

r

a

c

y

(

%

)

Datasets

GA

SAGA

Elitism GA

PSO

W PSO

cPSO

DPSO

SAPSO1

SAPSO2

SAcPSO

GPSO

APSO

PSO+SFLA

APSO+SFLA

114

References

Jing Li, Han Rui-feng, A Self-Adaptive Genetic Algorithm Based On

Real- Coded, International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and

computer Science , Page(s): 1 - 4 , 2010

Chuan-Kang Ting, Wei-Ming Zeng, Tzu- Chieh Lin, Linkage Discovery

through Data Mining, IEEE Magazine on Computational Intelligence,

Volume 5, February 2010.

Caises, Y., Leyva, E., Gonzalez, A., Perez, R., An extension of the

Genetic Iterative Approach for Learning Rule Subsets , 4th International

Workshop on Genetic and Evolutionary Fuzzy Systems, Page(s): 63 - 67 ,

2010

Shangping Dai, Li Gao, Qiang Zhu, Changwu Zhu, A Novel Genetic

Algorithm Based on Image Databases for Mining Association Rules, 6th

IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Computer and Information

Science, Page(s): 977 980, 2007

Peregrin, A., Rodriguez, M.A., Efficient Distributed Genetic Algorithm

for Rule Extraction,. Eighth International Conference on Hybrid

Intelligent Systems, HIS '08. Page(s): 531 536, 2008

115

Mansoori, E.G., Zolghadri, M.J., Katebi, S.D., SGERD: A Steady-State

Genetic Algorithm for Extracting Fuzzy Classification Rules From Data,

IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, Volume: 16 , Issue: 4 , Page(s): 1061

1071, 2008..

Xiaoyuan Zhu, Yongquan Yu, Xueyan Guo, Genetic Algorithm Based on

Evolution Strategy and the Application in Data Mining, First International

Workshop on Education Technology and Computer Science, ETCS '09,

Volume: 1 , Page(s): 848 852, 2009

Hong Guo, Ya Zhou, An Algorithm for Mining Association Rules Based on

Improved Genetic Algorithm and its Application, 3rd International

Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computing, WGEC '09, Page(s):

117 120, 2009

Genxiang Zhang, Haishan Chen, Immune Optimization Based Genetic

Algorithm for Incremental Association Rules Mining, International

Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Computational Intelligence, AICI

'09, Volume: 4, Page(s): 341 345, 2009

References Contd..

116

Caises, Y., Leyva, E., Gonzalez, A., Perez, R., An extension of the Genetic

Iterative Approach for Learning Rule Subsets , 4th International Workshop

on Genetic and Evolutionary Fuzzy Systems, Page(s): 63 - 67 , 2010

Xiaoyuan Zhu, Yongquan Yu, Xueyan Guo, Genetic Algorithm Based on

Evolution Strategy and the Application in Data Mining, First International

Workshop on Education Technology and Computer Science, ETCS '09,

Volume: 1 , Page(s): 848 852, 2009

Miguel Rodriguez, Diego M. Escalante, Antonio Peregrin, Efficient

Distributed Genetic Algorithm for Rule extraction, Applied Soft Computing

11 (2011) 733743.

Hamid Reza Qodmanan , Mahdi Nasiri, Behrouz Minaei-Bidgoli, Multi

objective association rule mining with genetic algorithm without specifying

minimum support and minimum confidence, Expert Systems with

Applications 38 (2011) 288298.

Yamina Mohamed Ben Ali, Soft Adaptive Particle Swarm Algorithm for Large

Scale Optimization, IEEE 2010.

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