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Faisal Awad | January 2012

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Definition
Loose Lining
Requirements of ASME VIII Div.2
2 Principal methods of manufacturing clad plate
Requirements of ASME VIII Div.1, Part UCL
Contents
6 Requirements of some Specifications
7
Required tests for clad/ weld overlaid plates
8 References
Cladding refers to the application of relatively thin layer of an alloy (as the cladder) onto a
substrate or backing material ( as the backer). The cladder would be selected from resistant
materials to the environment. They referred generically to Corrosion Resistance Alloys or CRAs.

AWS hand book:
Cladding: A surfacing variation that deposits or applies surfacing material usually to improve
corrosion or heat resistance.
ASME VIII Div.1 (3-2)
clad vessel: a vessel made from a base material having a corrosion resistant material either
to the base of less resistant material. weld metal overlaid or integrally bonded
API 5LD (2.1.a):
metallurgically Clad steel pipe is a bimetallic pipe composed of an internal CRA layer
bonded to the base metal.
1- Definition
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2- Principal methods of manufacturing clad plate
Hot Roll bonding 2.1
Explosive bonding 2.2
Weld overlaying 2.3
Hot Roll bonding is the most widely adopted production method where large clad areas are
needed and accounts for about 85% of all clad plate production .

Hot Roll bonding 2.1
Hot Roll bonding Process
The explosive bonding process, also known as "cladding by the explosive welding process

Explosive bonding is considered to be a solid-state welding process that uses controlled
explosive energy to force two or more metals together at high pressures. The energy of an
explosive detonation accelerates the cladder and base metal plates together causing a high
. metallurgical joining to fuse them together and make velocity collision

The force of the explosion sets up an angular collision which
produces an ejected plasma. The plasma jet acts to remove
impurities from both metals surfaces in front of the collision point,
leaving behind clean metal for joining. The pressures at the
collision point, which can be from 100,000 600,000 psi, are
enough to squeeze the metals into behaving like viscous fluids.
The fluid-like behavior is responsible for creating the wave pattern
bond line in an explosive weld.
Explosive bonding 2.2
video See
Explosive bonding Process
It is a welding process where a weld layer is applied to a base metal in order to improve its
properties, e. g., corrosion resistance.
Overlay - A layer, either permanent or temporary, that is superimposed on a substrate.
There are several different welding methods that can be used:

Submerged arc welding using a solid wire electrode, often Twin Arc double wire
Submerged arc welding using a broad but thin strip electrode
Strip electrode welding with a flux that enables the process to be carried out using the
electroslag principle.

The aim is to achieve a sound weld, but with little melting of the underlying material. In
this respect, the electroslag method is preferable to ordinary submerged arc welding, as it
penetrates less into the substrate material and so results in less mixing of the weld metal.
Several of the ordinary submerged arc welding methods can of course be used, but it
may be necessary to apply two or more layers until a sufficiently pure layer of weld
metal is produced.
Cladding is often performed by mechanised methods, as there are often larger areas to be
covered.
Weld overlaying 2.3
SAW strip cladding

The well-known SAW method has been widely
used with strip electrodes since the mid-1960s.
A strip electrode, normally measuring 60 x 0.5
mm or 90 x 0.5 mm, is used as the (usually
positive) electrode and an electric arc is
formed between the strip and the workpiece.
Flux is used to form a molten slag to protect
the weld pool from the atmosphere and helps
to form a smooth weld bead surface.
ESW strip cladding

ESW strip cladding relates to the resistance
welding processes and is based on the ohmic
resistance heating of a molten electrically
conductive slag. There is no arc between the strip
electrode and the parent material. The heat
generated by the molten slag melts the surface of
the base material, and the edge of the strip
electrode is submerged in the slag and flux.
video See
The penetration achieved with ESW is less than
that with for SAW because the molten slag pool is
used to melt the strip and some of the parent
material
video See
Weld overlaying inside a pipe
Weld overlaying inside a pipe
Hot Roll Bonding versus other methods
The loose lining isn't metallurgically bonded to the backing steel over most of its surface but
is normally fully sealed to form a complete barrier between the backing steel and the
corrosive environment.
ASME VIII Div.1 (3-2)
lined vessel: a vessel having a corrosion resistant lining attached intermittently to the
vessel wall.
API 5LD (2.1.a):
Lined pipe is a pipe in which a CRA layer is affixed inside the carbon steel pipe by
expanding the liner and/or shrinking the pipe or any other applicable processes.
ASME VIII Div.2:
Corrosion resistant or abrasion resistant linings are those not integrally attached to the
vessel wall, i.e., they are intermittently attached or not attached at all.
3- Loose Lining
Requirements for welded pressure vessels constructed of material with corrosion resistant integral
cladding, weld metal overlay cladding, or with applied linings
When the cladding or overlay thickness is not included in the design thickness, no specific
design provisions of part UCL are applicable.
, exclusive of In this case the design calculations are based on the base material thickness
the thickness of the cladding material, may consist of any base material satisfying the code
requirements and any metallic corrosion resistant integral or weld metal overlay cladding
quality that in the judgment of the user is suitable for the intended weldable material of
service.
in which the design calculations including the Clad material used in constructions
, design calculations shall be based on the total thickness excess thickness of cladding
of the clad material less the specified nominal minimum thickness of cladding. A
reasonable excess thickness of the actual cladding may be included in the design
calculation as an equal thickness of base material. The maximum allowable stress
value shall be that given for the base material.
The cladding must be subjected to the bond shear test and must show a minimum
shear strength of 140 MPa (20,000 psi).
Clad material used in constructions in which the design calculations consider the thickness
of cladding:
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4- Requirements of ASME Sec.VIII Div.1, Part UCL
in which the design calculations are based on the Clad material used in constructions
, if integrally clad material Roll or Explosive Bonding total thickness including cladding
shall conform to one of the following specifications:
(1) SA-263, stainless chromium steel-clad plate
(2) SA-264, stainless chromiumnickel steel-clad plate
(3) SA-265, nickel and nickel-base alloy-clad steel plate
In addition to the above, the cladding must be subjected to the bond shear test and
must show a minimum shear strength of 140 MPa (20,000 psi).
A shear or bond strength test is not required for weld metal overlay cladding
The thickness of the corrosion resistant weld metal overlay cladding deposited by
manual processes shall be verified by electrical or mechanical means. One examination
shall be made for every head, shell course, or any other pressure retaining component
for each welding process used.
t = t
b
+ S
c
/S
b
* t
c
t : design thickness
t
b
: nominal thickness of base material
t
c
: nominal thickness of cladding ( in the corroded condition)
S
c
: maximum allowable stress value for the integral cladding at design
temperature
S
b
: maximum allowable stress value for the base material at design temperature

If Sc > Sb , the value of S
c
/S
b
shall be taken equal to unity

2
(a) Vessels or parts of vessels constructed of base material with corrosion resistant integral or
weld metal overlay cladding and those having applied corrosion resistant
linings shall be radiographed when required by the rules in UW-11, UCS-57, UHT-57, and UCL-
36. The material thickness specified under these rules shall be the total material thickness for
clad construction and the base material thickness.
(b) Base Material Weld Protected by a Strip Covering. When the base material weld in clad or
lined construction is protected by a covering strip or sheet of corrosion resistant material
applied over the weld in the base material to complete the cladding or lining, any radiographic
examination required by the rules of UW-11, UHT-57, and UCS-57 may be made on the
completed weld in the base material before the covering is attached.
(c) Base Material Weld Protected by an Alloy Weld. The radiographic examination required by
the rules in UW-11, UHT-57, and UCS-57 shall be made after the joint, including the corrosion
resistant layer, is complete.
Except that the radiographic examination may be made on the weld in the base material before
the alloy cover weld is deposited, provided the following requirements are met.
(1) The thickness of the base material at the welded joint is not less than required by the design
calculation.
(2) The corrosion resistant alloy weld deposit is non-air hardening.
(3) The completed alloy weld deposit is spot examined by any method that will detect cracks.
(4) The thickness of the base material shall be used in determining the radiography requirement
in (a) above.
Radiographic Examination
CAUTION: Post weld heat treatment may be in the carbide-precipitation range for unstabilized
austenitic chromiumnickel steels, as well as within the range where a sigma phase may form,
and if used indiscriminately could result in material of inferior physical properties and inferior
corrosion resistance, which ultimately could result in failure of the vessel.
(a) Vessels or parts of vessels constructed of base material with corrosion resistant integral
or weld metal overlay cladding or applied corrosion resistant lining material shall be post weld
heat treated when the base material is required to be post weld heat treated. In applying
these rules, the determining thickness shall be the thickness of the base material. When the
thickness of the base material requires post weld heat treatment, it shall be performed after
the application of corrosion resistant weld metal overlay cladding or applied corrosion
resistant lining.
(b) Vessels or parts of vessels constructed of chromium stainless steel integral or weld metal
overlay cladding and those lined with chromium stainless steel applied linings shall be post weld
heat treated in all thicknesses, except vessels that are integrally clad or lined with Type 405 or
Type 410S and welded with an austenitic electrode or non-air hardening nickelchromiumiron
electrode need not be post weld heat treated unless required by (a) above.
Post Weld Heat Treatment
The provisions for marking and reports in UG-115 through UG-120 shall apply to vessels
that are constructed of base material with corrosion resistant integral or weld metal overlay
cladding and those having applied corrosion resistant linings, with the following
supplements to the Data Reports.
(a) Include specification and type of lining material.
(b) Include applicable paragraph in UCL-23 under which the shell and heads were
designed.
3.3.6.2. Design Calculations Based on Total Thickness
Base material with corrosion resistant integral or weld metal overlay cladding used in
construction in which the design calculations are based on total thickness including cladding
(paragraph 4.1.9) shall consist of base plate listed in one of the material tables in Part 3 and
shall conform to one of the following specifications or utilize weld metal overlay cladding
meeting the requirements of this Division.
a) SA-263 Specification for Corrosion-Resisting Chromium-Steel Clad Plate, Sheet and Strip;
b) SA-264 Specification for Corrosion-Resisting Chromium-Nickel Steel Clad Plate, Sheet and
Strip; or
c) SA-265 Specification for Nickel and Nickel-Base Alloy Clad Steel Plate.
3.3.6.4. Integrally clad plates in which any part of the cladding is included in the design
calculations, as permitted in paragraph 4.1.9, shall show a minimum shear strength of 140
MPa (20,000 Psi) when tested in the manner described in the plate specification. One shear
test shall be made on each such clad plate and the results shall be reported on the certified
test report
3.3.6.3. Design Calculations Based on Base-Plate Thickness
Clad plate used in constructions in which the design calculations are based on the base-plate
thickness, exclusive of the thickness of the cladding material, may consist of any base-plate
material satisfying the requirements of Part 3 and any metallic integral or weld metal overlay
cladding material of weldable quality.
5- Requirements of ASME Sec.VIII Div.2
Example:

Material UNS number N06625, Supplier
select SB-444 for solid SS pipe for nozzle
neck.
As per this table, we cannot use SB-444
There is a code case no. 2468-1 allow to
use this material, this code case shall be
referenced in vessel GA drawing/ BOM.
BP ETPs Engineering Technical Practices

Corrosion resistant weld overlay or cladding shall not be considered in calculating required
pressure boundary thickness.
UT for bond integrity of weld overlay or clad plate to ASTM A578 S6 Acceptance level B.
PT for weld overlay with no surface-breaking defects.
Chemical analysis for alloy 625 weld overlay shall be determined and specified in the weld
procedure qualification. Iron content shall not exceed 8% at the process wetted surface.
- PMI in accordance with Supplier procedure of Alloy 625 and Alloy 825 materials and its weld
consumables is required.
Chemical analysis of weld overlay deposits shall be taken to a minimum depth of 3 mm (0,125
in) below the final surface. Results shall meet the requirements of the specified wrought
material.
Linings, made by strips fillet welded to the shell, are not permitted.
Clad nozzles may be manufactured from clad plate or by weld overlay. Internal surfaces of the
nozzle and the flange face shall be clad. Loose linings are not permissible.
Clad plate shall be purchased with shear test requirements.
Welding consumables used for ASS weld overlays that are subject to PWHT shall be selected
to minimize sigma phase formation during the heat treatment; they shall be "L" grade, or
stabilized with additions of Ti or Nb (Cb).
The ferrite content of ASS overlays, with the exception of type 904L (which is fully austenitic),
shall be in the range 3 - 8% in the as-welded and post-weld heated condition.

6- Requirements of some Specifications
Clad ring type joints made as shown below are not acceptable because these are vulnerable to
cracking at the root of the groove, particularly if thermal stresses are large.
Cracking usually takes place due to high stress concentration in the RTJ groove
CHIPPED OR
GOUGED SURFACE
(a) MACHINING
12mm MIN.
(1/2 in)
0.8mm MAX.
(1/32 in)
0.8mm MAX.
(1/32 in)
5mm MIN.
(3/16 in)
(b) ROOT PASS
AFTER GOUGING
CHIPPED OR
GOUGED SURFACE
12mm MIN.
(1/2 in)
COMPLETED WELD
IN BASE MATERIAL.
GRIND FLUSH BEFORE
DEPOSITING ALLOY
(c) MAIN FILL &
BACK GOUGE
2 ND PASS
ELECTRODE
1 ST PASS
ELECTRODE
(d) BACK FILL &
CLADDING
Cladding re-instatement Restoration
Lightly loaded supports may be considered to be those where the average shear stress across the section does not
exceed 25 MPa (3 625 psi). Moderately loaded are those where it lies between 25 MPa (3 625 psi) and 50 MPa
(7 250 psi), and heavily loaded where it exceeds 50 MPa (7 250 psi). These stress values are approximate and, where
custom and practice indicates otherwise, designs shall follow satisfactory precedent.
CLAD STRIP
CLAD PLATE
CLAD PLATE OR
WELD OVERLAID
SOLID STRIP
CLAD STRIP
CLAD PLATE
STRIP, SHEET OR
WELD OVERLAY
SOLID ALLOY CLIP
Lightly and moderately loaded internal
supports may be welded directly to clad
plate where the plate has been clad by
weld overlay.
Moderately loaded attachments may be made
by cutting back the cladding and welding to the
base material. Cladding re-instatement shall be
made over any remaining unlined areas.
Heavily loaded internals where thermal stress
is present shall be integral with the shell.
Attachment of supporting ring to a clad vessel
ARAMCO

The base material nominal thickness shall be used for strength calculations.
Unless otherwise specified on the data sheet, the minimum thickness of cladding shall be 3.0
mm.
Non-integral strip linings shall not be used.
Loose sleeve liners are not permitted.
Integrally clad plates shall be supplied in accordance with: ASME SA-263, or ASME SA-264,
or ASME SA-265, as applicable.
Larger than NPS 4 solid alloy nozzles are not permitted.
Integrally clad plates shall be ultrasonically tested at the mill in accordance with ASME SA-
578. Any un-bonded areas are to be repaired in accordance with the supplementary
requirement S6, Level I of ASME SA-578. A report on all repairs that have taken place shall
be supplied by the mill.
Attachments supporting light loads, which will result in tensile or shear stress less than 6.9
MPa (1,000 psi), may be welded directly to the cladding.
When heat treatment is required, the procedure shall be such that it will not impair the
mechanical properties of the base material or the corrosion resistance of the cladding.


1- Ultrasonic Testing (UT)
2- Magnetic Particle (MT)
3- Dye penetrant (PT)
3- Positive Material Identification (PMI)
4- Ferrite content test (FN)
1- Tension test
2- Shear test
3- Bend Test
4- Hydrogen Disbonding test

7- Required tests for clad/ weld overlaid plates
Nondestructive Testing Destructive Testing
Positive Material Identification (PMI)
PMI refers to the identification and analysis of metal alloys
based on their elemental composition. Measurement results are
shown either in form of elemental concentration in percentage
and/ or by specific alloy name.
PMI is a typically field method, occasionally in office/ lab
environment. Typically used to :
Verify that the alloy used is correct and grade name is what
supposed to.
Verify possible impurities (unwanted elements)
Example of a typical analysis
The MTRs material test reports may not be always trusted.
This is becoming more common in the stainless steel and nickel
alloy fabrication industries. the implementation of Positive
Material Identification (PMI) to validate raw materials before
manufacturing begins.
Techniques used on portable PMI analyzers
XRF works by exposing a sample to be
measured to a beam of x-rays. The atoms
of the sample absorb energy from the x-
rays, become temporarily excited and
they fluoresce, and then emit secondary
x-rays.
By measuring the intensity and
characteristic energy of the emitted x-
rays, an XRF analyzer can provide
qualitative and quantitative analysis.

XRF units are smaller and much easier to
operate.
XRF requires no sample preparation.
In the OES atoms are also excited, excitation
energy comes from a spark formed between
sample and electrode. The energy from spark
causes the electrons in the sample to emit
light, this light is converted into spectral
pattern.
By measuring the intensity of the peaks in this
spectrum, the OES analyzer can produce
qualitative and quantitative analysis.


If C,S,P are needed, OES is the only choice.
OES requires always sample preparation by
grinding.
XRF based on X-Ray Fluorescence OES based on optical Emission Spectroscopy
stainless steel clad metals contain ferrite, which is
expressed in terms of Ferrite Number (FN). The
amount of ferrite present in the deposit is a function of
chemical composition of the filler and base metals,
welding process, type of shielding gas, welding
procedure, and heat input during cladding process.
Hence, control of ferrite in stainless steel cladding is
essential to obtain the required mechanical and
corrosion-resistant properties.
Ferrite content test
If the ferrite content is too low, then the welded material is susceptible to hot-cracking, if the
ferrite content is too high, the toughness, ductility as well as the corrosion resistance of the steel
are reduced. For duplex steel, a ferrite deficit in the area of the weld seam results in stress
corrosion cracking and reduction in strength
Magnetic induction method
A magnetic field generated by a coil begins to interact with the magnetic portions of the
specimen. The changes in the magnetic field induce a voltage proportional to the ferrite
content in a second coil. This voltage is then evaluated.
Weld overlay disbonding has been observed, in some
cases, during cool down of reactors. Crack propagation
occurs in a narrow zone at the interface and along grain
boundaries in the overlay close to the interface (Fig. 2).
The microstructure in this region is very complex as a
consequence of carbon migration during PWHT and
incomplete mixing of melted parent and filler materials.
The exact mechanism of disbonding is under discussion, but it is thought to occur,
essentially, as a result of hydrogen embrittlement. During operation, atomic hydrogen
diffuses into the reactor wall and the hydrogen concentration can build up to levels around 4
7 ppm in thick wall reactors. Following shutdown, hydrogen tends to accumulate at the
transition zone between the ferritic parent material and the austenitic weld overlay. This
occurs because hydrogen is about one order of magnitude more soluble in the austenitic
weld overlay than in the base metal, but its diffusivity in the overlay is much slower than in
the base material. Therefore, as the hydrogen diffuses from the base metal it tends to
accumulate at the weld overlay interface.
Disbonding
Mechanisms
Autoclave testing method
The most common method is by exposure of the test coupon in
an autoclave at high temperature and high hydrogen pressure.
Typical exposure conditions are :
Temperature: 300 500C, usually 425C
Hydrogen partial pressure: 14 20 MPa
Exposure time: 481 h
Cooling rate: 150C/h
Holding time at 242,5 C: 7 days
The test temperature and hydrogen pressures are chosen with
reference to the actual service conditions. Following exposure,
the specimens are cooled to ambient temperature at a
controlled rate, A cooling rate of 150C/h is commonly used for
qualification testing. The specimens are then held at room
temperature for a designated period to allow for development
of cracking between the stainless overlay and the steel.
Following the hold period, the specimens are evaluated for
disbonding by ultrasonic methods often combined with
metallographic examinations. The size and distribution of the
disbonded region(s) are then characterized (Figs. 7 and 8).
Hydrogen disbonding test
Various specimen geometries are used but recent configurations utilise a round geometry,
overlayed on the top and side surfaces.

The intention is to better simulate in-service behaviour with respect to hydrogen diffusion
during cool down. The cylindrical test specimen, according to ASTM G 146-01, is 732 mm
in diameter and 452 mm thick, or may be reduced to plate thickness.

Usually, the specimen is taken from a welding procedure qualification. A stainless overlay is
then applied to the cylindrical surface of the specimen to promote through-thickness
diffusion of hydrogen following exposure. The specimen is heat-treated in the same way as
the reactor.
Tensile requirements

Tension test Shall be determined by
Ultimate Tensile Strength is determined by dividing the highest load experienced by the specimen
before rupture by the original cross section of the test specimen.
Yield Strength is determined by the amount of stress that is required to begin plastic deformation
of the test specimen
The tensile properties shall be determined by a
for clad composite plate tension test of the
conditions: all of the following plates that meet

- The nominal composite gage is less than or equal to
112 in (38 mm).
- The specified minimum tensile strength of the base
steel is less than or equal to 70 000 psi (485 MPa).
- The specified minimum yield strength of the base steel
is less than or equal to 40 000 psi (275 MPa).

- The tensile properties thus determined shall not be
less than the minimum and not more than 5000 psi (35
MPa) over the maximum prescribed in the specification
for the base steel used
The tensile properties shall be determined by
for clad base steel only a tension test of the
conditions: one of the following plates that meet

- The composite gage is greater than 112 in (38 mm).
- The specified minimum tensile strength of the base
steel is greater than 70 000 psi (485 MPa).
- The specified minimum yield strength of the base steel
is greater than 40 000 psi (275 MPa).


The properties thus determined shall meet all of the
tensile test requirements for the base metal.
Tension test specimen for plates with thickness 38 mm and under.
The test specimen shall be the full thickness of the material fig.2
(ASME II Part A).
Tension test specimen for plates with thickness greater than 38 mm.
The test specimen shall be of the form shown in fig.3 (ASME II Part A).
Shear test
Shear Strength When required by the purchaser,
- - The minimum shear strength of the alloy cladding and base metals shall be 20 000 psi (140 MPa).
- - The minimum cladding thickness for shear testing shall be 0.075 in. (1.9 mm).

The shear test, when specified, shall be made in the manner indicated in Fig. below.
Test for strength of the bond

when required, must be specified by the purchaser and shall consist of one of the following:
- Shear Strength test
- Bond Strength test (bend test)

Bend test
The severity of the bend test is primarily a function of the angle of bend and inside diameter to
which the specimen is bent, and of the cross section of the specimen.
Flat strap of metal is cut from the cladded plates. Next, the flat strap of a prescribed size is bent
into a U-shape, stretching the material on the outer surface of the "U," while compressing the
material on the inside surface
Cladding
Base
metal
When the composite thickness of the clad material is 34 in. (19 mm) or less, and/or when the
cladding metal thickness is nominally 0.075 in. (1.9 mm) or less, the Bond Strength test, as
described in SA-263, SA-264, or SA-265, may be used in lieu of the bond Shear Strength test
to fulfill the criteria for acceptable minimum shear strength, except that the bend test specimen
shall be 112 in. (38 mm) wide by not more than 34 in. (19 mm) in thickness and shall be bent,
at room temperature, through an angle of 180 deg to the bend diameter provided for in the
material specifications applicable to the backing metal.
At least two of the three tests shall show not more than 50% separation on both edges of the
bent portion. Greater separation shall be cause for rejection.
ASME Sec. VIII Div. 1, 2010 Edition
ASME Sec. VIII Div. 2, 2010 Edition
ASME Sec. II part A, 2010 Edition
Welding handbook AWS, 9
th
Edition
CASTI Handbook of cladding Technology
Companion Guide to the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code
Stainless steel sheet lining of steel tanks and pressure vessels (NiDI)
ESAB Technical handbook for Strip cladding
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8- References
Thank you for your kind attention