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SOFT SWITCHING DC-DC CONVERTERS

FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES


WITH MPPT

NAME OF THE PROJECTEE
D.Shankar
MT10PED019.

NAME OF PROJECT GUIDE
Dr. P.S.KULKARNI
ELECTRICAL ENGG.DEPT. , VNIT.


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WHY SOLAR ENERGY?
Solar energy is the most readily available source of
energy.
It is free.
It is also the most important of the non-conventional
sources of energy because it is non-polluting.

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OUTLINE
Aims and Objectives.
Motivation.
Introduction.
Modeling Of PV Module.
Maximum Power Point Tracking.
Soft-switching DC-DC Converter.
PV Systems With MPPT.
Perturb and Observe (P & O) MPPT Algorithm.
Conclusions.
Future work.
References.
Publications.

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AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
To achieve maximum Efficiency from the dc-dc
converter by using soft switching techniques.
Study the effect of radiation and temperature on the solar
module out put.
To track maximum available power from the solar PV
Module.
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MOTIVATION
Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar mission of MNRE.

Keeping in view power losses in India everyone is keen to
adopt it.

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INTRODUCTION
A MPPT system has been consisting of a soft switching
BOOST/BUCK-type dc/dc converter, irrespective of the
temperature and irradiation conditions and of the load electrical
characteristics.
It overcomes the problem of mismatch between the solar arrays
and the given load.
The conventional Boost/Buck converter decreases the
efficiency because of hard switching, which generates losses
when the switches are turned on/off.
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PROPOSED SYSTEM









A DC-DC converter (step up/step down), serves the purpose of
transferring maximum power from the PV module to the load
and acts as an interface between the load and the module.

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STAND-ALONE PV SYSTEM WITH MPPT
8
The input DCDC converter part is formed by the PV array and the
output section by the batteries and load. The role of the MPPT is to
ensure the operation of the PV module at its MPP, extracting
the maximum available power.
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MODELING OF PV MODULE
A PV module consists of a number of solar cells
connected in series and parallel to obtain the desired
voltage and current output levels.
Each solar cell is basically a p-n diode.




The basic equation that describes the current output of
PV module of the single diode model is given by

(
(
(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
= 1 exp
c
S
P
s
s
s P ph p
AKT
I R
N
I R
N
V
q
I N I N I
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SOLAR CELLS CHARACTERISTICS
The solar cell has nonlinear V I and PV characteristics,
which depend on the irradiance, the operating
temperature and load condition of the cell.
The CurrentVoltage relationship & The Power - voltage
relationship curve of a solar PV module is given by
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WHAT IS A MAXIMUM POWER POINT
TRACKER?
Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT):
Technique used in power electronics systems to obtain the
maximum possible energy from PV arrays.
Its use is desired to compensate for the effect of
temperature, variations in solar radiation, and load
condition in a PV system.

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PV ARRAY CURRENT-VOLTAGE CURVES &
POWER-VOLTAGE CURVES









Mismatch between resistive load and PV Source; current
voltage curves & powervoltage curves


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MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING (MPPT)
METHODS
These are the some widely used MPPT algorithms can be
broadly classified as:

1) Perturbation and Observation (P&O) Method
(a) Conventional P&O Method
(b) Incremental Conductance Method

2) Linearity-based Methods:
(a) Short-circuit current method
(b) Open Circuit Voltage Method

3) Ripple Correlation Control Method

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MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING
14
Incremental Conductance Method
These method is based on the fact that
the slope dP/dV of the panel P-V curve
is positive on the left side of the MPP,
zero at the MPP and negative on the
right side of the MPP.

The incremental and conductance algorithm makes use of the
Following eq:

at MPP.

at the left of the MPP.

at the right of MPP.
0 =
dV
dP
0 >
dV
dP
0 <
dV
dP
( )
dV
I V d
dV
dP .
=
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BASIC PERTURB AND OBSERVE
Reference voltage control.
Direct duty ratio control.





System performance is affected by:
Step Size
Perturbation Frequency
( )
MPPT
f
( )
REF
V DorA A
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Begin P&O algorithm
Measure V
o
(K),I
o
(K)
P
o
(K)=V
o
(K)*I
o
(K)
P
o
= P
o
(K)- P
o
(K-1)
P
o
>0
D (K)- D(K-1)>0

D (K)- D(K-1)<0

Update History
P
o
(K-1)=P
o
(K)
Decrease
duty cycle
Decrease
duty cycle
Increase
duty cycle
Increase
duty cycle
Perturb and
Observe
MPPT
Algorithm
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CONTD..
Implemented through a DC/DC converter
LOGIC
1. Change duty cycle
2. Observe consequences on power output
3. Decide direction of next change in duty cycle


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SOFT-SWITCHING DC-DC CONVERTER
The dcdc converter for a PV system has to control the
variation of the maximum power point of the solar cell
output.
The analysis, design and modelling processes of hard-
switched converters are mature, where the switching
frequency was limited to a few 10s of kHz.


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BASIC CONCEPTS ON HARD-SWITCHING
Hard-switching








The process of power semiconductor device hard-switching

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THE CONCEPT OF SOFT-SWITCHING
Soft-switching








The process of power semiconductor device soft-switching

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TWO TYPES OF SOFT-SWITCHING
Is to shape the voltage or the current waveform by creating
a resonant condition to:
Force the voltage across the switching device to drop to
zero before turning it ON Zero-Voltage Switching
(ZVS)

Force the current through the switching device to drop to
zero before turning it OFF Zero-Current Switching
(ZCS)

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WHY SOFT-SWITCHING?
Reduce switching losses especially at high switching
frequencies.

Increase the power density, since the size and weight of
the magnetic components is decreased by increasing the
operating frequency.

Reduce the Electromagnetic Interference (EMI).

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SOFT-SWITCHING BOOST CONVERTER






Values of resonant inductor and resonant capacitor are
calculated by
|
.
|

\
|
[
+ A
|
.
|

\
|

[
<
min max min
2 2
I i T D V TV D L
L fw o r
o o
r
r
r
V
T D I
V
L I
L
T D
C
2
min min
2 2
2
min
2
2 2
min
8 . 0 4 04 . 0
[

[
+
[
=
23
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THEORETICAL WAVEFORMS

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SOFT-SWITCHING BUCK CONVERTER

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THEORETICAL WAVEFORMS
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BUCK CONVERTER PARAMETERS
The design procedure of the battery charger with ZCS buck
converter for a 12-V 48-Ah lead acid battery is summarized as
follows.
The normalized switching frequency f
ns
= 0.7 was set based on the
normalized voltage gain M=V
o
/V
s
= 14/17 =0.8.
= 14/6 = 2.33 .
The characteristic impedance is determined by substituting
R
o
= 2.33 and Q = 1 into
The necessary resonant frequency is derived from f
r
=f
s
/f
ns
= 16 kHz/0.7
= 22.25 kHz.
From above eq..
W
o
/Z
0
=1/L
r
C
r
=1/W
o
Z
0
L
o
=100L
r

C
o
=100C
r






29
O
O
O
I
V
R =
( ) LrCr
W
O
1
=
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MPPT LIMITATION
The maximum power transfer occurs when the source impedance
equal to load impedance. i.e.
The input impedance is given by
The converter output voltage & current is given by

The relation between & is given by


Similarly for buck converter is given by, the converter output
voltage & current is given by


The relation between & is given by


in
in
in
I
V
R =
D
V
V
S
O

=
1
) 1 ( D I I
S O
=
( ) ( )
LOAD
O
O
S
S
in
R D
I
V
D
I
V
R
2 2
1 1 = = =
LOAD
in
R
R
D =1
in
R
load
R
30
D V V
S O
=
D
I
I
S
O
=
in
R
load
R
LOAD
O
O
S
S
in
R
D I
V
D I
V
R
2 2
1 1
= = =
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31
SI MULATI ON RESULTS
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BOOST, BUCK CONVERTER & PV MODULE
PARAMETERS
Maximum Power(P
o,
max
)
74W
p
(option
al)
Switching frequency(
f
s
)
20 kHz
PV Module Voltage
(V
i
)
15-17.5V
Output Voltage (V
o
) 25V
Main Inductor( L) 280H
Resonant Inductor(
L
r
)
150H
Input Filter Inductor
(L
f
)
50H
Output Capacitor(C
o
) 1000F
Resonant
Capacitor(C
r
)
20nF
Table I. Boost Converter
Parameters
Open circuit voltage(V
oc
) 22.42V
Short circuit current(I
sc
) 4.2A
Maximum voltage(V
mpp
) 18.83V
Maximum current(I
mpp
) 3.93A
Maximum power at
STC(P
max
)
74W
P

Maximum system
voltage
600V
Table II. PV Module
Parameters
Maximum Power(P
o,
max
)
74W
p
(option
al)
Switching frequency(
f
s
)
16kHz
PV Module Voltage
(V
i
)
15-17.5V
Output Voltage (V
o
) 14V
Resonant
Capacitor(C
r
)
2.98H
Resonant Inductor(
L
r
)
16.96H
Output Inductor (L
o
) 160H
Output Capacitor(C
o
) 300F
Table III. Buck Converter
Parameters
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MATLAB/SIMULATION &RESULTS
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V-I & P-V CHARACTERISTICS UNDER
DIFFERENT RADIATION(MATLAB/SIMULATION
RESULTS)
34
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0 5 10 15 20
0
1
2
3
4
5
Voltage(V)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
(
A
)
V-I Characterstics of Solar Panel (74Wp)


1000 W/m2
800 W/m2
600 W/m2
400 W/m2
200 W/m2
At 298K Temperature
0 5 10 15 20
0
20
40
60
80
Voltage(V)
P
o
w
e
r

(
W
)
P-V Characterstics of Solar Panel (74Wp)


1000 W/m2
800 W/m2
600 W/m2
400 W/m2
200 W/m2
At 298K Temperature
PV MODULE UNDER DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE

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0 5 10 15 20
0
20
40
60
80
Voltage (V)
P
o
w
e
r

(
W
)
P-V Characterstics of Solar Panel (74Wp)


293K
298K
303K
313K
318K
AT Standard Radiation 1000 W/m2
0 5 10 15 20 25
0
1
2
3
4
5
Voltage (V)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)
V-I Characterstics of Solar Panel (74Wp)


283K
293K
298K
303K
313K
At 1000 W/m2 Radiation
SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTION OF PV
MODULE
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/
1
4
/
2
0
1
4

0 20 40 60
0
5
10
15
Voltage (V)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)
Series &Parallel Connection of Solar Panel


Series Connection
Parallel Connection
At Standard condition
0 20 40 60
0
50
100
150
200
250
Voltage (V)
P
o
w
e
r

(
W
)
Series & Parallel Connection (P-V Char)


Series Connection
Parrallel Connection
At Standard Condition
PV MODULE UNDER PARTIAL SHADING
CONDITION
37
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/
1
4
/
2
0
1
4

0 20 40 60
0
1
2
3
4
5
Voltage (V)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)
V-I Characterstics of Solar Module
Under Partial Shading Condition
700 W/m2
At 298K Temperature
300 W/m2
1000 W/m2
0 20 40 60
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Voltage (V)
P
o
w
e
r

(
W
)
V-I Characterstics of Solar Module
Under Partial Shading Condition
At 298K Temperature
-200
0
200
400
600
800
1000
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Time(hour)
21/05/2012 variation of solar radiation in VNIT
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BOOST
CONVERTER(MATLAB/SIMULATION)

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/
2
0
1
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MAIN INDUCTOR CURRENT & GATE PULSE
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/
1
4
/
2
0
1
4

40
9.5 9.55 9.6 9.65 9.7 9.75 9.8 9.85 9.9 9.95 10
x 10
-3
2
2.2
2.4
Time (sec)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)

9.5 9.55 9.6 9.65 9.7 9.75 9.8 9.85 9.9 9.95 10
x 10
-3
0
0.5
1
1.5
Time (sec)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)

Gate Pulse
Main Inductor Current
MAIN SWITCH VOLTAGE &CURRENT
9
/
1
4
/
2
0
1
4

41
9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 10
x 10
-3
0
10
20
30
Time (sec)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
(

V
)

9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 10
x 10
-3
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
Time (sec)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)

Voltage across the Main Switch
Current through Main Switch
9
/
1
4
/
2
0
1
4

42
9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 10
x 10
-3
0
10
20
30
Time (sec)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)


9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 10
x 10
-3
0
1
2
3
Time (sec)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)
Resonant Inductor Current


Resonant Inductor Current
Resonant Capacitor Voltage
9
/
1
4
/
2
0
1
4

43
9.6 9.65 9.7 9.75 9.8 9.85 9.9 9.95 10
x 10
-3
0
5
10
15
20
25
Time (sec)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)

Voltage across diode
BUCK CONVERTER (MATLAB/SIMULATION)

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9
/
1
4
/
2
0
1
4

GATE PULSES FOR BUCK CONVERTER
9
/
1
4
/
2
0
1
4

45
7.5 7.51 7.52 7.53 7.54 7.55 7.56 7.57 7.58 7.59 7.6
x 10
-3
0
1
2
Time(Sec)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
(
V
)

7.5 7.51 7.52 7.53 7.54 7.55 7.56 7.57 7.58 7.59 7.6
x 10
-3
0
1
2
Time(Sec)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
(
V
)

Main Switch
Auxillary Switch
RESONANT INDUCTOR CURRENT AND CAPACITOR VOLTAGE
9
/
1
4
/
2
0
1
4

46
5.41 5.42 5.43 5.44 5.45 5.46 5.47 5.48 5.49 5.5
x 10
-3
0
5
10
15
Time(Sec)
I
n
d
u
c
t
o
r

C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)
5.41 5.42 5.43 5.44 5.45 5.46 5.47 5.48 5.49 5.5
x 10
-3
0
20
40
Time(Sec)
C
a
p
a
c
i
t
o
r

V
o
l
t
a
g
e
(
V
)
FREEWHEELING DIODE VOLTAGE & CURRENT
9
/
1
4
/
2
0
1
4

47
7.5 7.51 7.52 7.53 7.54 7.55 7.56 7.57 7.58 7.59 7.6
x 10
-3
10
20
30
40
Time(Sec)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
(
V
)
7.5 7.51 7.52 7.53 7.54 7.55 7.56 7.57 7.58 7.59 7.6
x 10
-3
0
2
4
6
Time(Sec)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
(
A
)
VOLTAGE AND CURRENT WAVEFORMS OF THE AUXILIARY
SWITCH
9
/
1
4
/
2
0
1
4

48
7.5 7.51 7.52 7.53 7.54 7.55 7.56 7.57 7.58 7.59 7.6
x 10
-3
-10
0
10
Time(Sec)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
(
A
)


7.5 7.51 7.52 7.53 7.54 7.55 7.56 7.57 7.58 7.59 7.6
x 10
-3
0
10
20
Time(Sec)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
(
V
)
Current of the Auxillary Switch
CONVERTER OUT PUT VOLTAGES
49
For boost converter 35V
Time(sec)
Time(sec)
For buck converter 12.2V
9
/
1
4
/
2
0
1
4

BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER (MATLAB / SIMULATION)
9
/
1
4
/
2
0
1
4

50
9
/
1
4
/
2
0
1
4

51
9.5 9.55 9.6
x 10
-3
0
0.5
1
1.5
Time (sec)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)
Main Switch
9.5 9.55 9.6
x 10
-3
0
0.5
1
1.5
Time (sec)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)
Auxillary Switch
INDUCTOR CURRENT & CAPACITOR VOLTAGE
9
/
1
4
/
2
0
1
4

52
9.5 9.55 9.6
x 10
-3
0
5
Time (sec)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)
Inductor Current (Ilr)


9.5 9.55 9.6
x 10
-3
0
10
20
Time (sec)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)
Capacitor Voltage (Vc1)


4.5A
20.8V
CAPACITOR VOLTAGE &OUTPUT VOLTAGE
9
/
1
4
/
2
0
1
4

53
9.5 9.55 9.6
x 10
-3
0
20
40
Time (sec)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)
Capacitor Voltage (Vc2)


9.5 9.55 9.6
x 10
-3
-15
-10
-5
0
Time (sec)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
(
V
)
Output Voltage


35.5V
14V
MPPT P&O METHOD

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/
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PV MODULE POWER, VOLTAGE, AND CURRENT (WITH MPPT)
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/
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/
2
0
1
4

55
0 0.05 0.1 0.15
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Time(Sec)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
(
A
)
,

V
o
l
t
a
g
e
(
V
)
,

a
n
d

P
o
w
e
r
(
W
)
Step size = 0.005


Measured Power(W)
MeasuredVoltage(V)
Measured Current(A)
Calculated MPP Voltage = 18.93V
With MPPT
With out MPPT
Calculated MPP Current = 3.93A
Calculated MPP Power =74W
At 1000 W/m2 & 25oC
OUTPUT POWER & DUTY RATIO
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56
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2
0
50
100
Time (Sec)
P
o
w
e
r
(
W
)
PV Module Power(W)


0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2
0
50
100
Time (Sec)
%

D
u
t
y

R
a
t
i
o
% Duty Ratio


% Duty Ratio, Step size = 0.005
Power, Step size = 0.005
0.2 0.201 0.202 0.203 0.204 0.205 0.206 0.207 0.208 0.209
66
68
70
72
74


0.2 0.201 0.202 0.203 0.204 0.205 0.206 0.207 0.208 0.209
70
75
80
85


PV MODULE POWER, AND DUTY CYCLE
VARIATION(WITH STEP INCREASES IN RADIATION)
57
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0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Time(sec)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
(
A
)
,

V
o
l
t
a
g
e
(
V
)
,

a
n
d

P
o
w
e
r
(
W
)
For Varaible Radiation


Power(W)
Voltage(V)
Current(A)
400 W/m2
1000 W/m2
300 W/m2
At 25oC Temperature
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58
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
0
50
100
Time(sec)
P
o
w
e
r
(
W
)
PV Module Power (W)


0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2
0
50
100
Time(sec)
%

D
u
t
y

R
a
t
i
o
% Duty Ratio


Power(W)
% Duty Ratio
OUTPUT POWER & DUTY RATIO (STEP SIZE = 0.001)
0.2 0.201 0.202 0.203 0.204 0.205 0.206 0.207 0.208 0.209
60
65
70
75
80
Time(sec)
P
o
w
e
r
(
W
)
PV Module Power (W)


0.2 0.201 0.202 0.203 0.204 0.205 0.206 0.207 0.208 0.209
75.5
76
76.5
77
77.5
Time(sec)
%

D
u
t
y

R
a
t
i
o
% Duty Ratio


Power(w), Step size = 0.001
%Duty Ratio , step size= 0.001
Hardware Development of BUCK-BOOST
Converter
59
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BLOCK DIAGRAM OF HARDWARE DESIGN
60
PV Module
Voltage & Current
sensor
DC-DC
Converter
Battery / Load
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COMPONENTS FOR HARD WARE DESIGNING
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61
PV Panel &
Batteries
74Wp Panel
from VNIT,
Nagpur.
12V Battery.
DC-DC
Converter
IRF540.
MUR8100
Diode.
Inductor (1mH
& 5uH)&
Capacitor
(800pF).
Sensor &
Microcontroller
Current sensor
(WCS2720).
Voltage sensor
(33k &10k
Ohms).
ATMEGA 328.

BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER WITH MPPT
Buck-Boost
Converter
ATMEGA 328
Microcontroll
er
GATE Driver (MIC4425)
L
O
A
D
Current Sensing
Voltage Sensing
62
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CURRENT SENSOR
63
The WCS2720 consists of a precise, low-temperature
drift linear hall sensor IC with temperature
compensation circuit and a current path with 0.4 m
typical internal conductor resistance.
This extremely low resistance can effectively reduce
power loss, operating temperature and increase
the reliability greatly.
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VOLTAGE SENSOR
64
Vin (0~18V)
Voltage
Sensor
Vout (0~5V)
To measure the voltage of the panel and realize a
feedback for the uC, is necessary to monitor this
voltages.

A small capacitor in the output of the voltage
sensor to use it like a filter for the fluctuations in the
power line sensed. (To Reduce losses in the sensor
choose high value resistance R
1
=33k ohm.)


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MOSFET GATE DRIVER CIRCUIT
65
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COMPONENTS SPECIFICATION
66
SN74LS07
Convert TTL
Voltage Levels
to MOS Levels
High Sink-
Current
Capability
6N137
Very high speed
10 MBit/s
Double working
voltage-480V
Logic gate
output
MIC4425
Dual output
(inverted)
Peak output
current 3A
Operating
voltage 5V - 18V
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GATE DRIVER
67
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TESTING OF PWM SIGNAL FROM GATE DRIVER
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68
CONTD..
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69
ATMEGA328 MICROCONTROLLER (TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION)
Microcontroller ATmega328.
Operating Voltage 5V.
Input Voltage (recommended) 7-12V.
Input Voltage (limits) 6-20V.
Digital I/O Pins 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output).
Analog Input Pins 6
DC Current per I/O Pin 40 mA
DC Current for 3.3V Pin 50mA.
Flash Memory 32 KB of which 0.5 KB used
by boot loader.
SRAM 2 KB.
EEPROM 1 KB.
Clock Speed 16 MHz.
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70
IMPLEMENTATION OF SOFTWARE
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71
int maxDuty = 800;
long csPin = A0;
long vsPin = A2;
int numberAnalogReads;
int duty,dut;
long prevPower;
long prevVoltage;
void setup()
{
analogWrite(A0,10);
analogWrite(A2,10);
Serial.begin(9600);
TCCR1A = 242;
TCCR1B = 25;
ICR1 = maxDuty;
OCR1A = 400;
OCR1B = 700;
DDRB = 0xFF;
pinMode (csPin, INPUT);
pinMode (vsPin, INPUT);
int numberAnalogReads = 2;
int duty = 400;
long prevPower = 0;
long prevVoltage = 0;
}
void loop()
{
duty = OCR1A;
dut = OCR1B;
long current = readAndAvgC();
long voltage = readAndAvgV();
long power = current * voltage;
if (abs(power - prevPower) > 500)
{
algorithm (voltage, power);
}
delayMore ();
}
// Subroutines
long readAndAvgC ()
{
long reading = 0;
long temp = 0;
for (int x = 0; x <= 0; x++)
{
delay(400);
temp = analogRead(csPin);
delay(50);
temp = temp +
analogRead(csPin);
delay(50);
temp = temp +
analogRead(csPin);
delay(50);
temp = temp +
analogRead(csPin);
delay(50);
temp = temp +
analogRead(csPin);
delay(50);
temp = temp +
analogRead(csPin);
delay(50);
}
reading = temp / 6;
return reading;
}
long readAndAvgV ()
{

CONTD..
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72
long reading = 0;
long temp = 0;
for (int x = 0; x <= 0; x++)
{
delay(0);
temp = analogRead(vsPin);
delay(50);
temp = temp + analogRead(vsPin);
delay(50);
temp = temp + analogRead(vsPin);
delay(50);
temp = temp + analogRead(vsPin);
delay(50);
temp = temp + analogRead(vsPin);
delay(50);
temp = temp + analogRead(vsPin);
delay(50);
}
reading = temp / 6;
return reading;
}
void algorithm (long voltage, long
power)



{
if (duty > 40 && duty < 760)
{
if (power>prevPower)
{
if
(voltage<(prevVoltage+10))
//>
{
OCR1A = OCR1A - 25;
}
else
{
OCR1A = OCR1A + 25;
}
}
else
{
if
(voltage<(prevVoltage+10))
//>
{
OCR1A = OCR1A + 25;
}
{
OCR1A = OCR1A - 25;
}
}
}
else
{
OCR1A = 400;
}
prevPower = power;
prevVoltage = voltage;
return;
}
void delayMore ()
{
delay(1000);
return;
}

PWM SIGNAL FROM ATMEGA328 MICROCONTROLLER
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73
CONCLUSIONS
All of the switching devices in DC-DC converter
achieved ZCS and ZVS by the resonant inductor and
capacitor at turn/off. Therefore, the switching losses
were reduced dramatically.
The operational principles of the adopted converter and
applied them to the P&O algorithm, which is a kind of
MPPT method to achieve maximum power from panel.
Moreover, this DC-DC converter was verified by the
simulation and buck-boost converter experimental
results.
This soft-switching DC-DC converter can be applied to
a
stand-alone and a grid-connected system using a PV
power conditioning system.
74
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CONCLUSIONS
The P&O MPPT algorithm is a simple algorithm that
does not require previous knowledge of the PV generator
characteristics or the measurement of solar intensity and
cell temperature.
Direct duty ratio control offers better stability
characteristics and higher energy utilization efficiency at
a slower transient response and worse performance at
rapidly changing irradiance.
Noise has significant impact on the algorithm
performance, especially with low step sizes where the
system response to noise is comparable to that of MPPT
perturbations.
75
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FUTURE WORK
Development of a MPPT system has been consisting of a
soft switching boost/buck-type dc-dc converter,
irrespective of the temperature and irradiation conditions
for home lighting system and battery charging.
Improvement in maximum power point tracking algorithm
(MPPT).
76
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4

[1] Chetan Singh Solanki, Solar Photovoltaic's- fundamentals,
technologies and application, PHI learning private Ltd,2012.
[2] A. K. Mukerjee, Nivedita Takur, Photovoltaic Systems-
Analysis and Design, PHI learning private Ltd,2011.
[3] Trishan Esram, and Patrick L. Chapman, Comparison of
Photovoltaic Array Maximum Power Point Tracking techniques,
IEEE Transactions On Energy Conversion, Vol. 22, No. 2, June 2007.
[4] Sang-Hoon Park, Gil-Ro Cha, Yong-Chae Jung, and Chung-
Yuen Won, Design and Application for PV Generation System
Using a Soft-Switching Boost Converter With SARC, IEEE
Transactions On Industrial Electronics, Vol. 57, No. 2, February
2010.
[5] Eftichios Koutroulis, Kostas Kalaitzakis, and
Nicholas C. Voulgaris Development of a Microcontroller-Based
Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Control System., IEEE
Transactions On Power Electronics, Vol. 16, No. 1, January 2001.

REFERENCES
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CONTD..
[6] Weidong Xiao, Nathan Ozogand William G. Dunford, Topology Study
of Photovoltaic Interface for Maximum Power Point Tracking, IEEE
Transactions On Industrial Electronics, Vol. 54, No. 3, June 2007.
[7] Rahul S. Sable, A. S. Werulkar and P. S. Kulkarni , "Microcontroller
Based Soft Switching Buck Converter for Solar Home Lighting System.,
National conference on (ETREEE-201 ) pp.(167-173), February 25-26,2012.
[8] R. Gules, J. De Pellegrin Pacheco, H. L. Hey, and J. Rnhoff, A
maximum power point tracking system with parallel connection for PV stand-
alone applications, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 26742683,
Jul. 2008.
[9] Ying-Chun Chuang, High-Efficiency ZCS Buck Converter for
Rechargeable Batteries , IEEE Transactions On Industrial Electronics, Vol. 57,
No. 7, July 2010.


78
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PAPER PUBLICATION
[1] D.Shankar, A.S. Werulkar, P.S. Kulkarni Simulation Of Soft Switching
Boost Converter With MPPT For Solar Home Lighting System All India Seminar
(with International Participation) On Clean Energy & Energy Conservation 2012,
Pp.(100-106), 13
th
-14
th
October 2012.
[2] D.Shankar, and P.S.Kulkarni Soft Switching Buck Converter for Battery
Charging With MPPT International Conference on Global Scenario in
Environment and Energy (ICGSEE-2013),pp.(947-956), 14th 16th March 2013.
[3] A.S. Werulkar, D.Shankar and P.S. Kulkarni A Soft Switching Boost
Converter With Simulation Of Maximum Power Point Tracking For Solar Home
Lighting System International Conference on Global Scenario in Environment and
Energy (ICGSEE-2013),pp.(935-946), 14th 16th March 2013.
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80
THANK YOU!!
D.Shankar

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