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PROJECT Presentation

Medical multimodal Image


retrieval

By - Vijayender Singh
105483657

12/11/09
Topic we will cover
 Why medical industry
 IRMA Methods of System Categorization
 Image train labels
 Bag of words model
 Pyramid kernel
 Spatial pyramid scheme
 SFIT
 Clustering
 K means clustering
 Support Vector Machine

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Motivations
 Huge data base.
 The IRMA code for unique classification of
medical images.
 Beneficial in necessary times.
 New topic and Future prospects is good.
 Part of my master project
 Topic related to image processing
 Challenging subject
 Will be helpful many fields


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Why Medical Industry
 Consist of huge database
 Needs for content-based image retrieval in
medical applications
 New and challenging field
 The IRMA code for unique classification of
medical images.
 Research oriented topic
 Still lot of topics to explore

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IRMA Methods of System
Categorization
 First of seven successive analyzing steps
extracting content information from
medical images.
 Aims to establish intelligent processing
strategies
 Current image under investigation used in
strategies.
 Valid relations between code and sub-code
elements
 Code must be strictly hierarchical in order to
support semantic queries on a database.

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 Causality is important for grouping of
processing strategies.
 Mono-hierarchical scheme is required
 Each sub-code element is connected to only
one code element.
 Medical images must cover all aspects
 Influencing the image content and structure
 Multi-axial scheme was designed.
 Presented previously in German

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Technical code of IRMA
 The IRMA coding system consists of four axes with
three to four positions
 "0" denotes "unspecified" to determine the end of a
path along an axis:
◦ T (technical): image modality
◦ D (directional): body orientation
◦ A (anatomical): body region examined
◦ B (biological): biological system examined
 Short and unambiguous notation (IRMA: TTTT – DDD
– AAA – BBB)
 T, D, A, and B denotes a coding or sub-coding digit
of the technical, directional, anatomical, and
biological axis
 Notation avoids mixtures of one- and two-literal
code positions.

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Image Train Labels

 Needs for content-based image retrieval in


medical applications.
 coding scheme is required to describe
◦ a) the imaging modality including technical
parameters.
◦ b) the orientation of the image with respect to
the body.
◦ c) the body region examined.
◦ d) the biological system investigated.
 Worked on the Body region examined.

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Problem
 To extract the features using spatial
pyramid.
 Multi resolution histograms of local features.
 Visual Dictionary.
 IRMA technical code and system
categorization.
 Create new category for body region
examined.
 Support Vector Machine.

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Approach used
 Multi resolution histograms of local features.
 Spatial pyramid.
 K means Algorithm.
 Visual Dictionary.
 Support Vector machine.

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Introduction
 Image is collection of order less features.
 Incapable of capturing shape or of
segmenting an object from its background.
 Bag features method.
 Kernel based recognition method.
 Repeatedly sub dividing the image.
 Compute histogram of local features.
 Global method for object recognition.
 Identify overall scene.
 Categorizing images as containing objects.

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Previous Work
 Computing Histograms for image description
 Mutliresolution histograms
 Resolutions stays fixed
 Paper used a Opposite approach
 Fixing the resolution at which features are
computed
 Varying the spatial resolution at which
features are aggregated
 Preserves more information
 Kernel used for appropriate geometric
matching

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Bag of words Model
 Used for texture recognition
 Text is represented as an unordered
collection of words.
 Disregards the grammar.
 Don’t follow the word order ie a good book =
good book a.

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Representation based on the
bag of words model
Text can be represented by

Ex

Harry loves to play soccer. Sam loves to play

rugby.
Manchester united is a soccer club.

 Above example can be represented in a


dictionary .
 Dictionary = {1”Harry”, 2 ”loves”, 3 ”to”, 4
”play”, 5 ”soccer”, 6”Sam”, 7”rugby” ,
8”Manchester”, 9”united”, 10”is”, 11”a”,
12”soccer”, 13”club”}
 Here we have 13 dictionary words.

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Representation Based On The
Bag Of Words Model contd
 Using the indexes of the dictionary, each
document is represented by a 13-entry
vector
[1, 2, 2, 2,1,1, 1,0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,]

[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,]

 Each entry of the vectors refers to count




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Bag of Features Model
 Same idea of the bag of words model
applied in computer vision.
 Image treated as a document.
 Represent images collection of order less
local features.
 Features extracted from the image and
treated as a word.
 Works well for image classification.

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Outline of Bag of Feature
Model
 Extract features.
 Create visual vocabulary.
 Quantize features using visual vocabulary .
 Represent images by frequencies of visual
words.

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Spatial Pyramid Matching
 Kernel based recognition method.
 Efficient scene recognition in the large
datasets.
 It involves repeatedly sub dividing the
images.
 Compute histogram.
 Histogram are compared using weighted
histogram intersection.

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 Works by placing the sequence of
increasingly coarser grids over the feature
space.
 Two point said to matched if they fall into
the same grid

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Pyramid Match kernel
 Pyramid Match Kernels.
 build pyramid in feature space.
 discard spatial information
 X, Y are the two sets of vectors .

 HlX and HlY denotes the histogram of X and

Y.
 HlX (i) and HlY (i) denotes the number of

points from X and Y into the ith cell grid.




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 Histogram intersection function I(HlX, HlY)
 Eq :
Il = I(Hl , Hl ) = D l l
X Y i=1 ∑ min (H X (i) and H Y (i)) .
Matches found in level l also found in l+1 level

So new matches found at level l will be

 Il – Il-1 for l = 0…. l-1


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Spatial Matching
Scheme
 Perpendicular approach
 build pyramid in image space
 quantize feature space
 Use of traditional clustering technique
 Calculate all feature vectors into M types
 Final equation
Kl (X, Y) = M∑ K l (X , Y )
m=1 m m

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Spatial Matching Scheme
contd

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Feature Extraction
 Two types used
◦ Strong features
◦ Weak features
 Features are extracted using SFIT descriptor
 K Means clustering of random patches
 Visual vocabulary from training data set

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SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature
Transformation)
 Algorithm in computer vision.
 Publish by David Lowe in 1999.
 Widely used in object recognition.
 Detect and describe local features.
 Key points are extracted from the image and
stored in the data base.
 Description extracted from the training image
can be used on the test image and find the
matching features based on the Euclidean
distance of the feature vectors.
 Image size of 500 * 500 pixels can generate
about 2000 stable features


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Key Point In SIFT
Scale Invariant Feature Detection
 Transformation of an image into collection
of feature vectors
 Each vector is invariant to image translation,
scaling and rotation
 Key location are defined by the maxima and
minima of the difference of Gaussian
function
 Low contrast points and edge response
points are rejected
 Remaining key points are more stable for
matching and recognition

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Four Stages Of The
Algorithm
 Scale Space Peak Selection

 Key Point Localization

 Orientation Assignment

 Key Point Descriptor

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Scale Space Peak Selection

 Potential interest points are identified by


scanning the image over location.
 Implemented by constructing a Gaussian
pyramid
 search for local peaks or key points.
 Done by using difference of Gaussian
function.

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Key Point Localization

 Determine location and scale


 Selection based on stability
 Unstable key points rejected

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Orientation Assignment

 Identifies the dominant orientation of the


each keypoint.
 Based on local image path.
 Enable the SIFT to create a canonical view
for the keypoint .

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Key Point Descriptor

 Builds the representation of each key points.


 Based on the pixels in its local neighborhood
 Significance level of local shape distortion
and change in the illumination.

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Clustering
 What is cluster.
 process of organizing objects into groups
who are similar in some way.
 Two types of clustering
1) Distance based clustering.

2) Conceptual clustering.


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Distance Based Clustering

 Two or more object belong to the same


cluster if they are close according to their
geometrical distance
 Ex below we have 4 clusters

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Conceptual Based
Clustering
 Objects are grouped according to their fit to
descriptive concepts not according to
simple similarity measures.
 Example

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Clustering Algorithm
Classification
 Classify into four groups
 Exclusive Clustering
◦ data are grouped in the excusive way so that each
cluster to be distinct.
 Overlapping Clustering
◦ Data associated with a proper membership value.
◦ uses fuzzy sets to cluster data so that each point
may belong to two or more cluster with different
degree of membership.
 Hierarchical Clustering
◦ Based on union between two nearest cluster.
 Probabilistic Clustering
◦ It uses the probabilistic approach.

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Clustering Applications
 Marketing - finding groups of customers with similar
behavior given a large database of customer data
containing their properties and past buying records
 Biology - classification of plants and animals given their
features
 Libraries - book ordering
 Insurance - identifying groups of motor insurance policy
holders with a high average claim cost or identifying
frauds
 City-planning - identifying groups of houses according to
their house type, value and geographical location
 Earthquake studies - clustering observed earthquake
epicenters to identify dangerous zones
 WWW - document classification clustering weblog data
to discover groups of similar access patterns

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Distance Measure
 Important concept of clustering algorithm.
 Distance between two data points.
 Euclidian distance can some times be
misleading .

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Requirements
Main requirement an clustering algorithm should

satisfy
 Scalability .
 Dealing with different types of attributes.
 Discovering clusters with arbitrary shape.
 Minimal requirements for domain knowledge to
determine input parameters.
 Ability to deal with noise and outliers.
 Insensitivity to order of input records.
 High dimensionality.
 Interpretability and usability.

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K Means Clustering
 Basic idea is to define k centroids one for
each cluster.
 Each centriod give different result.
 Purpose is to classify the data.
 Algorithm groups the objects based on
features into K number of group.
 K is positive integer number.
 The grouping is done by minimizing the sum
of squares of distances between data and
the corresponding cluster centroid.


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K Means Properties
 There are always K clusters.
 There is always at least one item in each
cluster.
 The clusters are non-hierarchical and they
do not overlap.
 Every member of a cluster is closer to its
cluster than any other cluster.

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Simple Flowchart Of K
Means

 Step 1 – Start
 Step 2 – Number of cluster
 Step 3 – Centroid
 Step 4 – Distance of objects to centroid
 Step 5 – Grouping based on minimal
distance
 Step 6 – No object move group
 If yes
 Step 7 – End
 If no ( it iterates)
 repeat Step 3 to step 6

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Simple flowchart of K
Means

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K Means Equation
 Equation -
 J = j=1 ∑k nεSj ∑ ǀ Xn - µ j ǀ2

Here we have

Clustering of n data points into K disjoint subset Sj


Where

 Xn = vector representing nth data point


 µj= geometric centriod of the data points in
Sj

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Advantages Of Using K
Means
 Can work with a large number of variables
 K-Means may be computationally faster
 K-Means may produce tighter clusters than
hierarchical clustering

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Disadvantages of using K
Means
 Difficulty in comparing quality of the
clusters produced
 Fixed number of clusters create a problem to
predict K value
 Does not work well with non globular
clusters.
 Different initial partitions can result in
different final clusters.

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Support Vector Machine
 Goal of SVM modeling is to find the optimal
hyperplane that separates clusters of
vector
 One category of the target variable are on
one side of the plane and cases with the
other category are on the other size of the
plane.
 Performs classification by constructing an N-
dimensional hyperplane
 Optimally separates the data into two
categories.
 SVM models are closely related to neural
networks.

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 SVM model using a sigmoid kernel function


is equivalent to a two-layer, perceptron
neural network.
 Models are a close cousin to classical
multilayer perceptron neural networks.
 Kernel function are an alternative training
method
◦ Polynomial
◦ radial basis function
◦ multi-layer perceptron classifiers
 weights of the network are found by solving
a quadratic programming problem with
linear constraints

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 Predictor variable is called an attribute
 Solving a non-convex, unconstrained
minimization problem not used.
 Transformed attribute that is used to define
the hyperplane is called a feature.
 Choosing the most suitable representation is
known as feature selection.
 Set of features that describes one case (i.e.,
a row of predictor values) is called a
vector.
 The vectors near the hyperplane are the
support vectors. The figure below presents
an overview of the SVM process.

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Advantages of using
SVM
 Key advantage of SVM is the use of kernels.
 The absence of local minima the sparseness
of the solution.
 The capacity control obtained by optimizing
the margin.

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Disadvantages of using
SVM
 The biggest limitation of the support vector
approach lies in choice of the kernel
 A second limitation is speed and size, both
in training and testing.
 Discrete data presents another problem
 The optimal design for multiclass SVM
classifiers is a further area for research.

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Experiments Done
 Took 500 images from the IRMA image folder
 Spatial pyramid code applied on that images
works fine
 Histograms made
 Pyramids where applied to SVM
 SVM works fine shown the promising results

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Conclusion
 Modification of pyramid match kernel shown
good result
 Method uses global approach to find the
object in the image
 Shown the improvement over the order less
image representation
 Use of SVM works fine shown good result
 Future work is to develop the method that
can take full advantage of discriminative
information provided by the images

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References
 http://www.cs.unc.edu/~lazebnik/spring09/lec18_bag_of_features.pdf
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bag_of_words_model
 http://lear.inrialpes.fr/~verbeek/slides/bof_classification.pdf
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bag_of_words_model_in_computer_vision
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bag_of_words_model
 http://people.revoledu.com/kardi/tutorial/kMean/NumericalExample.htm
 http://cs.gmu.edu/cne/modules/dau/stat/clustgalgs/clust5_bdy.html
 http://www.resample.com/xlminer/help/kMClst/KMClust_intro.htm
 http://mathworld.wolfram.com/K-MeansClusteringAlgorithm.html
 http://www.cs.umd.edu/~mount/Projects/KMeans/
 http://home.dei.polimi.it/matteucc/Clustering/tutorial_html/AppletKM.html
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cluster_analysis
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K-means_clustering
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cluster_%28computing%29
 http://www.sdcoe.k12.ca.us/score/actbank/tcluster.htm
 http://books.google.com/books?id=ZIARBoJQxzcC&dq=clustering&prints


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 http://www-cvr.ai.uiuc.edu/ponce_grp/publication/paper/bmvc04.pdf
 http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.2.8899
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scale-invariant_feature_transform
 http://graphics.cs.cmu.edu/courses/15-463/2005_fall/www/Papers/BrownLow
 http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~rahuls/pub/cvpr2004-keypoint-rahuls.pdf
 http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~yke/pcasift/
 http://people.cs.ubc.ca/~lowe/papers/cvpr97.pdf
 http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/legacymapper?did=526611
 http://www.dmoz.org/Computers/Artificial_Intelligence/Machine_Learning/So
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cluster_analysis
 http://factominer.free.fr/
 http://people.revoledu.com/kardi/tutorial/Clustering/index.html
 http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~dld/cluster.html
 http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/kernlab/index.html
 http://adios.tau.ac.il/compact/
 http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/legacymapper?did=526611
 http://www.leet.it/home/lale/joomla/component/option,com_wrapper/Itemid,
 http://home.dei.polimi.it/matteucc/Clustering/tutorial_html/AppletKM.html


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 http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-11-2006/jw-1121-thread.html
 http://informationandvisualization.de/blog/kmeans-and-voronoi-tesselation-b
 http://mathworld.wolfram.com/K-MeansClusteringAlgorithm.html
 http://www.improvedoutcomes.com/docs/WebSiteDocs/Clustering/K-Means_C
 http://www.resample.com/xlminer/help/kMClst/KMClust_intro.htm
 http://www.ee.columbia.edu/ln/dvmm/publications/08/FKLforSPM_cvpr08.pdf
 http://www.ifp.illinois.edu/~jyang29/papers/CVPR09-ScSPM.pdf
 http://wiki.answers.com/Q/FAQ/4128-3
 http://www.robots.ox.ac.uk/~vgg/publications/papers/bosch07.pdf
 http://www.sciweavers.org/publications/linear-spatial-pyramid-matching-usin
 http://www.citeulike.org/user/apcoates/article/5314764
 http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1282280.1282340
 http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1282280.1282340
 http://wapedia.mobi/en/Pyramid_(image_processing)
 Image source WIKI , spatial_pyramid_matching _sceme_1.pdf






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Questions
Thank You