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About waste management
• All of us generate waste everyday. Waste comes from our homes, schools, colleges, markets, industries, agriculture and commercial places. • Where do we throw all the garbage? It is thrown into the garbage bins kept at different places by the municipal authorities. Garbage from the bins is collected and carried by trucks to a distant place for disposal.
• Any material which cannot be used in the form in which it is produced is called a Waste.
• It is no longer needed by us because it has lost its value. If it is thrown around, it can cause soil, air or water pollution. It also poses a serious threat to normal life, plants, animals and humans beings.
Types of waste on the basis of their physical statecan be divided into the following three • Wastes
• 1) Solid
categories on the basis of their physical states:
2) Liquid waste 3) Gaseous waste
• Solid waste is commonly called
garbage. It includes only non-liquid
wastes generated from households and other commercial places.
• Waste includes all the three types of wastes whereas garbage includes only solid wastes.
Types of waste on the basis of degradability
•1. Biodegradable wastes •
• They can be classified into two main groups on the basis of ability to get decomposed. They are:
•2. Non – biodegradable wastes
•Biodegradable •Nonbiodegradabl wastes e wastes
Biodegradable wastes are those waste which can be decomposed by the microorganisms into simpler substances. If it is handled in the proper way it causes no harm. Some examples are:
1. peel and cutting of fruits and vegetables 2. cow dung 3. plant residue
Non biodegradable wastes are those which cannot be decomposed by the microorganisms into simpler substances. Such types of waste is a matter of serious concern for all of us & if it is not handled properly, causes pollution. Some examples are:
and agriculture waste…This type of waste can be
recycled by making vermicompost or for preparing biogas.
1. plastic bags 2. buckets 3. plates 4. glass 5. metal scrap 6. industrial metallic
• One method of reducing the amount of waste to be thrown away is to recycle it.
• It involves the collection and then processing of the waste to make new useful products .
• PVC, LDPE, and PP are also recyclable, although these are not commonly collected. These items are usually composed of a single type of material, making them relatively easy to recycle into new products. • • The recycling of complex products (such as computers and electronic equipment) is more difficult, due to the additional dismantling and separation required.
• Every year, Americans throw away 50 billion food and drink cans, 27 billion glass bottles and jars, and 65 million plastic, metal jar and can covers. More than 30% of our waste is packaging materials. • • So where does it all go? Some 85% of our garbage is sent to a dump, or landfill, where it can take from 100 to 400 years for things like cloth and aluminum to decompose. Glass has been found in perfect condition after 4,000 years in the earth! •
Reuse things away, try to find ways to use them again! • Instead of throwing
• • • • • • • • •
For example: Bring cloth sacks to the store with you instead of taking home new paper or plastic bags. You can use these sacks again and again. You'll be saving some trees! Plastic containers and reusable lunch bags are great ways to take your lunch to school without creating waste. Coffee cans, shoe boxes, margarine containers, and other types of containers people throw away can be used to store things or can become fun arts and crafts projects. You just have to use your imagination! Don't throw out clothes, toys, furniture, and other things that you don't want anymore. Somebody else can probably use them. You can bring them to a center that collects donations, give them to friends, or even have a yard sale. Use all writing paper on both sides. Use paper grocery bags to make book covers rather than buying new ones. Use silverware and dishes instead of disposable plastic utensils and plates. Store food in reusable plastic containers.
• Many of the things that we use in every day life, like paper bags, soda cans, and milk cartons, are made out of materials that can be recycled.
• Recycled items are put through a process that makes it possible to create new products out of the materials from the old ones.
• In addition to recycling the things you buy, you can help the environment by buying products that contain recycled materials. Many brands of paper towels, garbage bags, greeting cards, and toilet paper, to name a few examples, will tell you on their labels if they are made from recycled materials.
• In some towns you can leave your recyclables in bins outside your home, and a truck will come and collect them regularly. Other towns have recycling centers where you can drop off the materials you've collected. Things like paper and plastic grocery bags, and plastic and aluminum cans and bottles can often be brought to the grocery store for recycling. Whatever your system is, it's important to remember to rinse out and sort your recyclables!
• We have two kinds of wastes:
Segregation of waste
• • These two kinds of waste require different methods for their disposal. Therefore these two types of waste should be collected separately.
• If they have not been collected separately, then these must be segregated before disposal.
Recycling biodegradable waste • Biodegradable waste can be recycled by the method of vermicomposting. •
• It is done with the help of earthworms which feed on biodegradable waste. • • The compost thus obtained is an excellent manure for the farmers.
• The best way of recycling paper is to use part of it at home and sell the rest to the
• Biodegradable waste can also be used for producing biogas by the process of fermentation. • • It is an ideal fuel. • • The slurry left after obtaining biogas is used as manure. • • Thus, it is one of the most convenient and economic ways of disposing off biodegradable waste.
• Biodegradable waste can also be used for generating electricity in power plants.
• In Hyderabad a power plant run by a company
named SELCO is already producing 6 MW electricity from garbage since 2000.
Recycling of non-biodegradable Waste • Landfills:
• This consists of a large low lying area which is used for solid waste disposal. • The garbage collected from the garbage dumps are loaded into trucks & then emptied in these landfills. • The dumping of garbage continues till landfills get completely full & are then covered over with a layer of soil. • After a landfill is full it can be converted into a park or a playground.
• • • • • • They totally burns away all solid wastes & only ashes are left behind. This method does not need water. Ashes are biodegradable and are easy to dispose off. Normally all municipal wastes are disposed off by this method.
• We sell unusable non-biodegradable wastes to the
Making New Products
• What does he do with these wastes?? • He takes them to the factories where these things are melted to make new products. • Some examples are:
1. broken glass bottles & tumblers…..are melted to make new glass products 2. juice cans….are melted to make
Harmful effects of burning
• You must have seen in your locality that sweepers very often collect the dry leaves etc. that get accumulated on the roadside & burn it.
• Farmers to burn the husk, dried leaves and crop remains in their fields after harvesting a crop.
• This process of burning garbage & other biodegradable waste produces smoke & gases that are harmful to us.
Disadvantages of excessive use of Plastics • The word plastic is derived from the Greek word plastic
meaning to mould.
• True to its name, plastic can be molded into any shape large….small….thin….thick….solid or hollow.
• Plastics are widely used today…all sorts of things from toys to utensils, machine parts to computer parts, radio and television cabinets, polythene bags and wrappings, water proof clothes, shoes and even molded furniture are made of plastic.
• But plastic is not biodegradable. It takes a million years for a plastic bag to degrade. So plastic is really dangerous for the environment……….
1. when thrown around , plastic materials destroy the natural beauty of a place. 2. plastic bags often choke the drains which results in overflowing of waste water. 3. sometimes plastic bags are eaten by stray animals along with leftover food. This can cause choking and result in their death.
1. Reduce your dependence on plastic bags. 2. Carry your own cloth bag or jute bag for shopping. 3. Use the soft drink plastic bottles for storing water. 4. Say “NO” to plastic to save the future generation. We should reduce the amount of waste generated by us. This can be done by practising the three R’s-
What we should do to Minimize Overuse of Plastics
- REDUCE, - REUSE - RECYCLE.