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Marketing, Truth

and Advertising
Marketing is defined by the American
Marketing Association as the activity, set of
institutions, and processes for creating,
communicating, delivering, and exchanging
offerings that have value for customers,
clients, partners, and society at large.
The term developed from the original
meaning which referred literally to going to
market, as in shopping, or going to a market
to sell goods or services.
Marketingcomplex of commercial
communications to create a favorable
opinion and business communication
Commercial ads
Public service ads
Political ads

Five Ps of Marketing
Product: The product aspects of marketing deal
with the specifications of the actual goods or
services, and how it relates to the end-user's
needs and wants. The scope of a product generally
includes supporting elements such as warranties,
guarantees, and support.
Pricing: This refers to the process of setting a price
for a product, including discounts. The price need
not be monetary; it can simply be what is
exchanged for the product or services, e.g. time,
energy, or attention. Methods of setting prices
optimally are in the domain of pricing science.

Five Ps of Marketing
Placement (or distribution): refers to how the product
gets to the customer; for example, point-of-sale
placement or retailing. This third P has also sometimes
been called Place, referring to the channel by which a
product or service is sold (e.g. online vs. retail), which
geographic region or industry, to which segment (young
adults, families, business people), etc. also referring to
how the environment in which the product is sold in can
affect sales.
Promotion: This includes advertising, sales promotion,
publicity, and personal selling. Branding refers to the
various methods of promoting the product, brand, or
Five Ps of Marketing
People refer to the staff and salespeople who work for
your business, including yourself.
When you provide excellent customer service, you
create a positive experience for your customers, and in
doing so market your brand to them. In turn, existing
customers may spread the word about your excellent
service and you can win referrals.
Give your business a competitive advantage by
recruiting the right people, training your staff to develop
their skills, and retaining good staff.

Advertising is constantly bombarded by
criticism. Accused of encouraging
materialism and consumption, causing us
to purchase unneeded items, stereotyping,
taking advantage of children and
vulnerable, manipulating our behavior, and
generally contributing to the downfall of the
social system.
Paid form of public presentation and
expressive promotion of ideas
Aimed at masses
Manufacturer may determine what goes
into advertisement
Pervasive and impersonal medium
Maintain demand for well-known
Introduce new and unknown goods
Increase demand for well-known
Create Awareness
Steps in Advertising campaign

Market research
Setting out aims
Choice of media (television,
newspaper/magazines, radio, web, outdoor)
Choice of actors and players (New Trend)
Design and wording
Test results
Maximize sales
Brand building
Create awareness
Persuade buyers
Introduction of new product
Enable market leadership
To face competition
To inform changes
To counteract to competitors advertisement
To enhance goodwill
False Advertising Defined

There must be a representation, omission or
practice that is likely to mislead or to confuse the
The act or practice must be considered from the
perspective of a reasonable consumer.
The representation, omission, or practice must be
material such that it is likely to influence the
purchasing decision.

Moral Arguments
Teleological Perspective: focus on the
consequences of behavior
They focus on some utilitygreatest good for
greatest number
Does the advertising campaign bring about good for
the corporation and its publics?
Who benefits and who suffers as a result of the ad
What information is most useful to society as part of
an advertisement?
Deontological Perspective
Is the advertising truthful?
Does any group suffer life-threatening or dignity-
debasing consequences as a result of the ad
Does the product being advertised add genuine
Are the rights of individuals being protected by the
ad campaign?
What duties to consumers and publics are being
served in the ads?

Virtue Perspective
Based on view that human communities require
certain virtues or skills including honesty
truthfulness, compassion, loyalty, and justice
What kind of life/society is being promoted in the
Are the values being advertised the ones to which
the organization subscribes?
Does the advertising agency understand the central
values of the hospital and why it holds them?

Natural law perspective
Values/goods to be positively promoted and protected from
being acted against
What goods will be promoted by advertising?
A tool to inform people about the availability of rationally
desirable new products
A tool for sustaining honest and ethically responsible
A tool to positively influence the media
A tool to communicate a message of a religious nature
messages of faith, compassion,
A tool in politics to create a democratic conversation
Your ads should not be misleading.
Your ads should not lead people to demand
services they do not reasonably need.
All your advertising claims should be based
on facts.
Your ad should present a fair and honest
account of the service advertised.
be applied to other commercial enterprises.
fairness, honesty and accuracy;
respect for the individual;
sensitivity to the emotional, spiritual and
physical needs of the people we serve;
determination to express the unique
character of the organization being served
commitment to deliver all that we promise
Whats missing from the policies?
Some Questions
Is there something inherently wrong in advertising
or is it just some kinds of methods of advertising?
Is there something inherently unethical about
advertising in health care? And developing
products to meet needs?
How can advertising be helpful or unhelpful in the
mission of the organization?
What is the best organizational response? Policy?
Audits? Statements?