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His characteristics, caliphate and contribution

`UTHMAN IBN `AFFAN (R)


The Third Rightly-Guided Caliph
WHO WAS HE?
Was from the most senior
companions of the Prophet
Was titled Dhu al-Nurayn (the
man of two lights) as he married
two of the daughters of the
Prophet
Was a man of bashfulness,
modesty, temperance and great
wealth.
Was acknowledged as a great
scholar of the Qur'an, though
wasn't a proficient public speaker.
PROPHETIC
TRADITIONS
(AHADITH) ON
UTHMAN
"Should I not feel bashful of a man
in whose presence even the angels
feel bashful?" (Muslim)
"Uthman among the companions
resembles me most in character."
(Ibn Asakir)
When Umm Kulthum died, the
Prophet advised the Muslims:
"Give your daughters in marriage to
Uthman. If I had a third daughter I
would give her in marriage to him,
and I never wedded to him my
daughters except in compliance
with a Divine Revelation." (al-
Tabarani)
"Abu Bakr is in Paradise, 'Umar is
in Paradise, 'Uthman is in
Paradise..." (al-Tirmidhi)
SELECTION TO THE
OFFICE OF CALIPH
Caliph Umar, on his deathbed,
appointed a committee of six
people to choose amongst
themselves who would be the
caliph .
After three days, Uthman was
decided as the caliph and was
given bay`ah.
ACCOMPLISHMENT
S DURING HIS
CALIPHATE
Dealing with the delicate situation
that arose from `Umar's murder.
Military achievements:
- Conquest of Alexandria (25 AH)
- Conquest of Armenia (25 AH)
- Conquest of [North] Africa
(27AH)
- Conquest of Cyprus and Rhodes
(28-29 AH)
- Quelling of the Persian Uprisings
(27 AH)
- Fall of Tabaristan and Khurasan
- Cleaning Up the Persian Empire
Codification of the Qur'an
perhaps his primary achievement.
Expansion of the Prophet's
Mosque
He had a series of firsts to his
name, including:
- First to give people plots of land
to cultivate
- First to perfume mosques with
incense
- First to order the additional
adhan for Jumu`ah prayers
- First to give salaries to
mu'adhdhins
- First to stammer whilst giving a
khutbah
- First to assume leadership in the
lifetime of his mother
- First to appoint a sheriff
NATURE OF HIS
CALIPHATE
Uthman was a very lenient and
easy-going leader as compared to
Abu Bakr and especially `Umar
A lot of the time, he gave in to the
demands of those who requested
him
Wealth and luxury became more
common during his caliphate,
leading to the building of palaces.
ISSUES WITH HIS
CALIPHATE
He was accused of nepotism
His leniency in ruling was believed
to have been a factor in:
1) the increasing attachment of the
Muslims to the material world, and
2) in the sedition (fitnah) that
resulted in his assassination.
THE SEDITION
AND HIS DEATH
Believed to have been started by a
man named `Abdullah ibn Saba'.
He started convincing the people
that `Ali should've been caliph and
that Uthman usurped his right.
He and his followers also forged
letters in the name of the Caliph,
notable Companions and widows
of the Prophet (radiyallahu
`anhum)
His sedition spread to the main
centres of the nation. Not too soon
afterwards, parties of rebels from
these centres were dispatched to
Madinah.
Prevented from entering through
the door by several Companions,
they set fire to his house, scaled
the walls and killed the Caliph.
They also robbed his house and
the Public Treasury. He died whilst
reciting verses from the Qur'an.
The rebels prevented him from
receiving a proper funeral service.
His body was carried out secretly
of his house three days after his
death, and was buried at night
without bath or enshrouding.
AFTERMATH
His caliphate lasted 12 years, the
longest of any of the rightly-
guided caliphs.
The rebels that killed Uthman
caused much trouble in later years.
Their group became known as the
Khawarij, one of the two main
early offshoots from Islam.
HIS LEGACY
Codification of the Qur'an and its
circulation a legacy that lasts to
today.
North Africa, today a majority
Muslim region, entered into Islam
during his reign.
Additional adhan for Friday prayer.
Set an example for Muslims in
generosity.