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The Research Process Steps 4 to 5

Chapter 4
The Research Process for Basic
& Applied Research

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1. Observation
Broad area of
research interest
identified
2. Preliminary
Data Gathering
Interviewing
Literature survey
3. Problem
Definition
Research problem
delineated
7. Data Collection
Analysis, and
Interpretation
8. Deduction
Hypotheses substantiated?
Research question answered?
4.
Theoretical
Framework

Variables
clearly
identified
and
labelled
5.
Generation
of
Hypothesis
6.
Scientific
Research
Design
9. Report
Writing
10. Report
Presentation
11.
Managerial
Decision
Making
No Yes
Theoretical Framework
A theoretical framework is the foundation of hypothetic-deductive
method.
It represents the beliefs on how variables (phenomena) are related
to each other (model) and an explanation of why these variables
are associated.
From the theoretical framework, then, testable hypothesis can be
developed to examine whether the theory formulated is valid or
not.
Even if hypotheses are not generated theoretical framework is
important for examining the issue under investigation.
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Variables
A variable is anything that can take on varying
values. The values can differ at various times
for the same object or person, or at the same
time for the different objects or persons.
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Examples of Variables
Production Units
Absenteeism
Motivation
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Types of Variables
The dependent variable (criterion variable)
The independent variable (predictor variable)
The moderating variable
The intervening variable
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Dependent Variable
The main variable that lends itself for
investigation (the variable of primary interest
of research)
Through the analysis of dependent variable,
it is possible to find solutions to the problem
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Exercises of Dependent Variable
An applied researcher wants
to increase the performance
of organizational members in a
particular bank

What would be the dependent
variable in this case?
A marketing manager wonders
why the recent advertisement
strategy does not work


What would be the dependent
variable here?
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Independent Variable
An independent variable is one that influences
the dependent variable in either a positive or
negative way
Therefore, when independent variable is
present, dependent variable is also present,
and with each unit of increase in the
independent variable, there is an increase or
decrease in the dependent variable also. e-g,
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Stock market
price
New product
success
Independent Variable Dependent Variable
4 conditions
To establish that a change in independent
variable causes a change in dependent
variable 4 conditions should be met:
Both should covary
Independent variable should precede the
dependent variable
No other factor should cause change in dependent
variable.
A logical explanation about the affect of
independent on dependent variable.
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Exercises of Independent Variable
A manager believes that
good supervision and
training would increase the
production level of workers
the managers believes
customer purchase intention
would possible with word of
mouth, promotions, brand
image and product quality.
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List the variables in the above mentioned two exercises,
individually, and label them as dependent or independent,
explaining why they are so labeled.
Moderating Variable
Moderating variable is a variable, the
presence of which, modifies the original
relationship between the independent and
the dependent variables. e-g,
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Organizational
Effectiveness
Workforce
Diversity
Independent Variable Dependent Variable
Managerial
Expertise
Moderating Variable
Exercises of Moderating Variable
A manager finds that off-the-
job class room training has a
great impact on the
productivity of employees in
her department. However, she
also observes that employees
over 60 years of age do not
seem to derive much benefit
and do not improve with such
training
A teacher observed that effective
teaching methodology can
decrease students dropout rate.
However, she also noted that
students who remain frequently
absent in the class still have high
dropout rate even if effective
teaching methodology is present.
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List the variables in the above mentioned two exercises,
individually, and label them as dependent or independent,
also drawing a diagram of relationships.
Intervening Variable
The intervening variable surfaces between
the time the independent variables start
operating to influence the dependent
variable and the time their impact is felt on.
e-g,
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Organizational
Effectiveness
Workforce
Diversity
Independent Variable Intervening Variable Dependent Variable
Creative
Synergy
Effect of Four Variables
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Organizational
Effectiveness
Workforce
Diversity
Independent Variable Intervening Variable Dependent Variable
Creative
Synergy
Managerial
Expertise
Moderating Variable
Theoretical Framework
Theoretical Framework is the foundation on
which whole research is based
It is a logically developed, described &
elaborated network of associations among
the variables deemed relevant to the
problem situation and identified through
such processes as interviews, observations
and literature survey
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The Components of the Theoretical
Framework
1. The variables considered relevant to the study should be clearly
identified and labeled in the discussions
2. The discussions should state how two or more variables are related
to one another.
3. Indication in the discussion as to whether the relationships would
be positive or negative
4. There should be a clear explanation of why we should expect
these relationships to exist. The arguments could be drawn from
the previous research findings
5. A schematic diagram of theoretical framework should be given so
that the reader can see and easily comprehend the theorized
relationships

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Hypothesis
A logically conjectured relationship between
two or more variables expressed in the form
of testable statement.
Relationships are conjectured on the basis of
the network of associations established in the
theoretical framework formulated for the
research study.
By testing the hypothesis and confirming the
conjectured relationships, it is expected that
solutions can be found to correct the problem
encountered
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Examples of Hypothesis
Employees who are more healthy will take sick
leave less frequently
If employees are more healthy, then they will
take sick leave less frequently
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Directional Hypothesis
If, in stating the relationship between two
variables or comparing two groups, terms
such as positive, negative, more than, less
than and the like are used, then these
hypothesis are directional
e-g, The greater the stress experienced in the
job, the lower the job satisfaction of
employees
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Non-directional Hypothesis
Non-directional Hypotheses are those that do
postulate a relationship, but offer no
indication of the direction of these
relationships.
e-g, There is a relationship between age and
job satisfaction
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Example Delta Airlines
According to the reports, Delta Airlines faced
charges of air-safety violations when there
were several near collisions in midair, and one
accident that resulted in 137 deaths in 1987.
Four important factors that seem to have
influenced these are:
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Example Delta Airlines
1. Poor communication among the cockpit crew
members.
2. Poor coordination between ground staff and
cockpit crew.
3. Minimal training given to the cockpit crew.
4. Management philosophy that encouraged a
decentralized structure.
Did these factors indeed contribute to the safety violations?
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Theoretical Framework for Example
The dependent variable is safety violation, which is
the variable of primary interest.
The variance in the safety violation is attempted to
be explained by the four independent variables of (1)
communication among crew members, (2)
communication between ground control and the
cockpit crew, (3) training received by the cockpit
crew, and (4) decentralization.
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Theoretical Framework for Example
The less the communication among the crew
members themselves, the greater is the
probability of air-safety violations since very
little information is shared among them.
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Theoretical Framework for Example
When ground crew fail to give the right information
at the right time, misfortunes are bound to occur
with aborted flights and collisions.
Coordination between ground and cockpit crew is at
the very heart of air safety. Thus, the less the
coordination between ground control and cockpit
crew, the greater the possibility of air-safety
violations taking place.
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Theoretical Framework for Example
Both of the above factors are worsened by the management
philosophy of Delta Airlines, which emphasizes
decentralization.
Centralized coordination and control assume great
importance when increased flights overall in midair, and with
all airlines operating many more flights.
Thus, the greater the degree of decentralization, the greater is
the scope for lower levels of communication both among in-
flight staff and between ground staff and cockpit crew, and
the greater the scope for air-safety violations.
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Theoretical Framework for Example 10
When cockpit crew members are not adequately
trained, they may not have the requisite knowledge
of safety standards or may suffer from an inability to
handle emergency situations and avoid collisions.
Thus, poor training also adds to the probability of
increased safety violations.
These relationships are diagrammed in Figure
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Figure
FIGURE 5.8 Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Sekaran/RESEARCH 4E
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