General characteristics
Whiplike locomotor apparatus Sucking disc Axostyle Undulating membrane Rudimentary mouth called cytosome

Giardia lamblia
Inhabits the small intestine Trophozoite
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Pear or tear drop shaped Prominent ovoid sucking disc 4 pair of flagella Large karyosome Suported by axostyle Jerky falling leaf movement 2-4 nuclei


Inflammation of the G.I. tract Results to secretions of abundant mucus Weaknes, chills, low grade fever,nausea, anorexia Passage of foul smelling stool Steatorrhea

Diagnosis and treatment
DFS ELISA Furazolidone

Chilomastix mesnili
Large intestine Trophozoite
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Pear shaped With distinct karyosome 3 anterior flagella Stiff rotary or cork screw movement Lemon shaped With protuberance ( nipple shaped cyst )

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General characteristics
Only trophic stage Round anterior pointed posterior Rigid axostyle extending from the mid of the body 3-6 anterior flagella With undulating membrane

Trichomonas vaginalis
Pyriform with cytosome Prominent axostyle Largest Presence of siderophil granules on cytoplasm Inflammation of vaginal wall with petechial hemorrhage Desquamation of vaginal eithelial cell

Greenish yellow secretion Intense vaginal itchiness ad burning sensation Urethritis, vaginitis, prostatis Geimsa’s or Pap’s Oral metronidazole

Trichomonas tenax
Inhabits the oral cavity 4 flagella Undulating membrane which does not reach the posterior end of the body Single nucleus and cytosome Oral contact Dishes, glasses

Trichomonas hominis
Caecum 5 anterior flagella Posterior flagellum from undulating membrane Axostyle extends from anterior to posterior end along the mid axis Oral ingestion

Blood and tissue flagellates

Stages of development
Amastigote or leishmania

Ovoidal without free flagellum Spindle shaped With flagellum

Promastigote or leptomonas
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Epimastigote or crithidia Trypomastigote or trypanosoma


Trypanosoma brucei
Trypanosoma brucei gambiense
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West African sleeping sickness Tse tse flies East African sleeping sickness Tse tse flies

Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense
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Epimastigote in invertebrates Trypomastigote in mammals Enters circulation and lymphatic system Invades CNS Irregular fever, headache, hyperactive Mental retardation and altered reflexes Pentamidine, suramin

Trypanosoma cruzi
American typanosomiasis Chaga’s disease Reduviid bug ( kissing or assasin bug ) Chagoma – painful nodule at the site of inoculation Muscle fiber of the heart, smooth muscle of the G.I. tract causing enlargement and ANS nerve ganglia Nifurtimox, benzuldazole

Leishmania tropica
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Oriental sore/old world leishmaniasis Phlebotomous fly ( sand fly ) Chiclero’s ulcer Espundla mucocutaneous leishmaniasis Kala azar or visceral leishmaniasis Phlebotomous fly ( sand fly )

Leishmania braziliense
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Leishmania donovani
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Ulceration of the skin leaving ugly scar Resembles lepromatous leprosy Metastatic ulceration of oropharynx, pharyngeal mucosa—leprosy like tissue destruction and swelling ( tapir nose ) Fever, malaise, weight and appetite loss Ski darkening, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and lymphadenopathy

Stain with Wright’s or Giemsa’s Culture with Nicole, Novy and Mc Neal Sodium atiboglucolate and N- methyl glucamine antimonate Amphotericin, metronidazole, nifortimox, pentamidine ( for kala- azar )

Balantidium coli
Largest intestinal protozoa Trophozoite
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Covered with spiral longitudinal row of cilia Kidney shaped macronucleus and small spherical micronucleus Directional rolling movement With thick cell wall Macronucleous and contractile vacuoles are found in the cytolasm

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Infection through ingestion of cyst Excystation in the small intestine and become trophozoites With cytolytic enzyme hyaluronidase Ulceration with numerous parasites on the base of the ulcer Secondary bacterial infection Balantidiasis dysentery similar to amoebiasis

Diagnosis- stool examination Tetracycline/metronidazole

Toxoplasma gondii
Asexual multiplication in man Obligate intracellular parasite Pyriform in shape AKA tachyzoites Accumulation of tachyzoites leads to the formation of cyst Cats are the definitive host

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