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NEUROLOGIC CAUSES

OF MENTAL ILLNES
I. Genetics and Heredity
 Current theories and studies indicate
that several mental disorders may be
linked to a specific gene or combination
of genes but that the source is not only
genetic.
 Gene SORL1 – variations in this gene
may be a factor in late-onset
Alzheimer’s disease.
II. Stress and Immune System
 Examines the effect of psychosocial
stressors on the body’s immune
system.

III. Infection
 Certain infections have been linked to
brain damage and the development of
mental illness or the worsening of
its symptoms.

ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUGS
 Used to treat symptoms of
psychosis: delusion, hallucination,
schizoaffective disorder, and the
manic phase of bipolar disorder
 Anxiety, insomnia, aggressive
behavior, disruptive behavior in
Alzheimer’s disease

MECHANISM OF ACTION
DOPAMINE
1 2 3 4 5

MENTAL ILLNESS

ANTIPSYCHOTICS

SIDE EFFECTS
 Extrapyramidal Side Effects (EPS)
 Dystonia
 Pseudoparkinsonism
 Akathisia
 Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
 Tardive Dyskinesia
 Anticholinergic SideEffect
ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS
 Treatment of major depressive
illness, anxiety disorders, depressed
phase of bipolar disorder, and
psychotic depression
 Treatment of acute pain, migraine
headaches, peripheral and diabetic
neuropathies, sleep apnea,
dermatologic, panic and eating
disorders
TRICYCLIC
ANTIDEPRESSANTS
 SIDE EFFECT
 Dry mouth
 Constipation
 Urinary hesitancy
 Dry nasal passages
 Blurred near vision
SELECTIVE SEROTONIN
REUPTAKE INHIBITORS
 SIDE EFFECT
 Anxiety
 Agitation
 Akathisia
 Nausea
 Insmonia
 Sexual dysfunction

MONOAMINE OXIDASE
INHIBITOR
 SIDE EFFECT
 Daytime sedation
 Insomnia
 Weight gain
 Dry mouth
 Orthostatic hypotension
 Sexual dysfunction
MOOD STABILIZING DRUGS
 LITHIUM – most stabilized mood
stabilizer
 Carbamazepine, valproic acid – good
mood stabilizers

MECHANISM OF ACTION
 Lithium normalizes the reuptake of
certain neurotransmitters
 Carbamazepine and valproic acid
stabiize mood by inhibiting the
kindling process

SIDE EFFECT
 Mild nausea or diarrhea
 Anorexia
 Fine hand tremor
 Polydipsia
 Polyuria
 Metallic taste in the mouth
 Fatigue or lethargy
ANTIANXIETY DRUGS
 Used to treat anxiety and anxiety
disorders, insomnia, OCD,
depression, PTSD, and alcohol
withdrawal
MECHANISM OF ACTION
SIDE EFFECT
 BENZODIAZEPINES
 Drowsiness
 Sedation
 Poor coordination
 Impaired memory
 Clouded sensorium