. Unit 2: The Musculo-skeletal system: . Develoment of bones. . Classification of bones. . Macroscopic and microscopic structure of bones. .

Name of main bones. . Function of bones, ligaments, cartilages and tendons. . Classification of joints. . Synovial joint.


. Lecture: 8 Hours.

. Prepared By: David Quek Sim Kee PKL. B.Sc (Hons).


. Unit 2: Musculoskeletal System: . Specific Objectives: At the end of this session, the students should be able to:

1. state the classification of bones. 2. draw and label macroscopic and microscopic structure of bone.

3. explain the development of bones. 4. explain the functions of bones, ligaments, cartilage and tendons. 5. state the name of the main bones. 6. describe the structure and movement of joints. 7. draw and label synovial joint. 4

. Bones:


. Bones: . Strong, durable and hardest type of connective tissue. . Consists of: . Water (25%). . Organic material (25%). - bone cells, osteod (the carbon containing the matrix). . Inorganic material (50%)


Components of the skeletal system: . Consists of: . The bones. . The cartilages. . The tendons. . Accounts for 20% of the body weight. . Forms the framework of the body.

1. Classification of bones: . Classified into five main types according to its size and shapes: a. b. c. d. e. Long bones: Short bones Irregular bones Flat bones . Sesamoid bones

1. Classification of bones:


2a. Macroscopic structure of bone

tissue: a. Long bones: . Long. . Primarily made up of compact bones. . Have large spongy bone at the ends. . Have long shaft with two expanded extremities. eg: Femur, tibia, fibula. 10

a. Long bones:


. Consist of a shaft and two expanded ends. . Length is greater than the width. . Usually curved for strength. . Eg: femur, tibia and fibula. Humerus, ulna and radius.


. The diaphysis: . Bone’s body or shaft. . Long cyclindrical main portion. . Composed thick compact bone. . Surround a hollow central medullary canal. - containing fatty yellow bone marrow in adults. 13

. Surface of medullary canal is lined with a thin connective tissue membrane called endosteum containg osteoclasts (break down bones).


. The epiphyses: . Distal and proximal ends of bone. . Consists of spongy bone cover by thin layer of compact bone outside.


. Articular surface of epiphysis is covered by hyaline cartilage which replaces periosteum to form synovial joints. . Growing bones, there is an epiphyseal plate of hyaline separating diaphysis and epiphysis. . Plate replace epiphyseal line when 16 growth cease.

. The periosteum: . Tough, white fibrous connective tissue covers the outer surface of long bone. . Consists of two layers: . Fibrous (outer layer). . Osteogenic (inner layer) - consists of osteoclasts 17 (bone

A mature long bone



. Structure of short, irregular, flat and sesamoid bones: . No diaphysis or epiphysis. . Diverse in shape and size. . Have a thin outer layer of compact bone. . Inside have cancellous bone containing red bone marrow. . Enclosed by periosteum except 20 the

b. Short bones eg: carpals (wrist) tarsals (ankle). c. Irregular bones eg: vertebrae skull bones. d. Flat bones eg: cranial, sternum and ribs. e. Sesamoid bones eg: patella (knee cap)palms and soles.

Section of flat and irregular bones.


2b. Microscopic structure of bone

tissue: 2 types of bone tissue: a. Compact bone tissue. b. Spongy (cancellous) bone tissue.


Microscopic structure of bone tissue: . Compact and spongy bone:


a. Compact bone tissue:


a. Compact bone tissue: . Contain few spaces. . Forms the external layer of all and bulk of the shaft of long

bones bone.

. Provides protection and support long bone resist stress by the weight of body. . Consists of closely packed 26

. Haversian system: . Consist of haversian canal. . Runs blood, nerve and lymphatic vessels. . Surrounded by bone plates or lamellae. . Between lamellae are lacunae (small cavities) which contains osteocytes (bone cells). 27 . Lacunae joint each other by

. Haversian system:


. Haversian system:


b. Spongy bone tissue:

. Lighter and less dense. . Found mainly in: . short, flat and irregular shaped bones. . epiphysis of long bone. . Does not contain true osteons. . Consists numerous thin bone column called trabeculae, rich in red 30 bone marrow.





3. Development of bone tissue:

(Osteogenesis or ossification) is . Process of bone development

called ossification or osteogenesis. . Process begins before birth. . Complete about 21 years of life. . Osteogenesis involves 3 types of bone cells involve in the 33 development, growth and

. Bone cells: . Three types: a. Osteoblasts. . Primary bone forming cell later develop into osteocyte. b. Osteoclast. c. Osteocytes (mature bone cells).

a. Osteoblast: . Bone forming cells. . Originate from fibrous tissue cell. . Can be found: . Under periosteum layer. . Center of ossification of immature bone. . End of diaphysis. 35 . Site of fracture.

. Function: . Produce bone matrix. Later calcified and become bone tissue. . As bone develops osteoblast are trapped in lacunae.


b. Osteoclast: . Break down and resorp (repair) bones to maintain optimun shape. . Takes place at bone surfaces.


c. Osteocytes(mature bone cells): . Mature bone cells. . Osteoblast migrate to matrix, trapped and remain in

. Two types of bone tissue development:

a. Intramembranous Ossification: . Occur in Flat bones of the skull and some irregular bones. . Replacement of sheetlike connective tissue 38 membranes

. Bones formed from connective tissue membrane are intramembranous bone. . Osteoblast migrate to membrane and deposit bone matrix. . Calcification hardened bone matrix and develop into bone tissue. . Osteoblast get trapped in the 39 lacunae

b. Endochondral Ossification: . Endo means inside. . Chondral means cartilage. . Formation of bone tissue from cartilage. . Involves replacement of hyaline cartilage with bone tissue. . All skeletal bones except flat and 40 sesamoid bones develop from

. Bone growth: . Grow in length at the epiphyseal plate. . Cartilage in the epiphyseal plate grow by mitosis. . Osteoblasts move in and ossify matrix to form bone. . Process continues throughout childhood and adolescence.


. Cartilage growth stops usually in the early 20’s. . Epiphyseal plate completely ossifies, a thin epiphyseal line remains and the bone can no longer grow in length.


. Bone increase in length or diameter: . Bone can still continue to increase in thicknesss or diameter throughout life. . Increase in diameter is called appositional growth. . Osteoblast and osteoclast increase the diameter of bone.


4. Functions of bone, ligaments, cartilages and tendons: i. Support. . Provides a rigid framework support soft organs. . Support the body against


the pull

of gravity. . Large bones of lower limbs support the trunk when 45 standing.

ii. Protection. . Protects many internal organs from injury. . Fused bones of the cranium surround the brain make it less vulnerable to injury. . Vertebrae surround and protect the spinal cord. 46 . Rib cage protect the heart and

iii . Movements. . Provide sites for muscle attachment. . Bones and muscle work together as mechanical lever systems to produce body movement. . Lever system has 4 components: a. Rigid bars - bones. b. Pivots or fulcrum - joints between the bones. c. Object or Weight that is 47

iv. Storage of minerals. . Intercellular matrix of bone contains large amounts of calcium and phosphorus. . On demand, bone releases minerals into the blood to maintain mineral balances (homeostasis) and to 48

vi. Storage of chemical energy: . Triglycerides stored in the adipose cells of yellow bone marrow are an important chemical energy reserve.


v. Blood cells formation: . Blood cell formation called hematopoiesis takes place in red bone marrow. . Produces RBC, WBC and platelets.



. RECAP . Label the parts .


1. Division of the skeleton:

. Bony framework of the body. . Adult body consists of 206 named bones. . Grouped in 2 division: . 80 bones in axial skeleton. . 126 in appendicular skeleton.


Division of the skeleton:


5. Bones of the skeleton:

. Bony framework of the body. . Adult body consists of 206 named bones. . Grouped in 2 division: . 80 bones in axial skeleton. . 126 in appendicular skeleton.


2. Bones of the axial skeleton: . Contains 80 named bones. . Divided into: . the skull. . Hyoid. . vertebral column. . rib cage.


. Skull: . Contains 28 bones. . Rests on top of the vertebral column. . Flat and irregular bones. . United by interlocking joints called suture. . Divided into 2 parts: i. cranial bones or cranium. ii. Facial bones.

i. Cranial bones or cranium: . 8 flat and irregular bones interlocked together. . Enclose and protect the brain. . 2 Parietal. . 2 Temporal. . 1 Frontal. . 1 Occipital. . 1 Ethnoid. . 1 Sphenoid.



. Contain sinuses (air-filled cavities) to reduce the weight of skull. . Numerous foramina (openings) to allow for passage of blood vessels and nerves.


. Cranial Bones: a. 1 Frontal bone: . Forms anterior portion of skull: above the eye (forehead), a portion of nose, and superior portion of orbit (eye socket).



b. 2 parietal bones: . Form the side and roof of the skull. . Joined: . to each other in the midline by sagittal suture. . to the frontal bone by coronal suture. . with occipital at the lambdoidal suture.


c. 2 temporal bones: . Lie one on each side of head. . Form parts of the sides and base of the cranium. . Form immovable joints with parietal, occipital, sphenoid and zygomatic bones. 64

d. 1 occipital bone: . Forms back of the head and part of the base of the skull. . Immovable joints with parietal and temporal bones.


e. Sphenoid bone


e. The sphenoid bone: . Lies at the middle part of the base of the skull. . Articulates with temporal, parietal and frontal bones. . Shape resembles a bat with outstretched wings.


f. The ethmoid bone: . A light, spongy bone. . Located at the roof of the nose between the orbits. . Has 2 projections into the nasal cavity the upper and middle conchae. . Contains many air sinuses opening into the nasal cavity.

The right ethmoid bone


ii. 14 facial bones: . Form the framework and shape of the face. . Provide attachments for the muscle that control facial expression and move the jaw for chewing. . 13 bones are interlocked together. . 1 moveable mandible (lower 70 jawbone).

b. Facial bones - 14 bones: . . . . . . . . 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 Maxilla. Zygomatic. Mandible. Nasal. Palatine. Lacrimal. Vomer. Inferior nasal conchia.


. Hyoid bone: . U-shaped bone lying in the soft issue of the neck. . Just above the larynx and below the mandible.



. Unique, only bone in the body that does not articulate directly with another bone. . Gives attachment to the base of the tongue. . Attachment for several muscles associated with swallowing.

. Vertebral column:

. Also called the spine or backbone. . Extends from the skull to the pelvis. . Composed of 26 irregular bones called vertebrae. . Separated by pads of fibrocartilage called intervertebral disks. Acts as shock absorbers allow column to 75

. 4 curvatures increase the strength and resilience to the column. a. Thoracic curvature. b. Sacral curvature. c. Cervical curvature. d. Lumbar curvature.


. Vertebral column - 26 bones: . Consists of 26 vertebrae. . 7 Cervical vertebrae. . 12 Thoracic vertebrae. . 5 Lumber vertebrae. . 1 Sacrum. . 1 Coccyx.


The vertebral column


. Cervical vertebrae: . The atlas: . The 1st cervical vertebra. . Carry the weight of the head and facilitate its movement. . Consists of a ring of bone with 2 short transverse processes. . Has no body and spinous process. . Anterior aspect is a small facet for 79 articulation with the odontoid

A cervical vertebral


Lower cervical vertebrae


. The axis: . The 2nd vertebra. . Have a small body and a spinous process. . Characterized by an odontoid process (tooth-shaped projection) or dens projects upwards in the anterior 82 side.

. Thoracic vertebrae: . Have a heart-shaped body. . Spinous process is long and points downwards. . On each side of the body there are 2 costal facets for articulation with the ribs.

A thoracic vertebra


. Lumber vertebrae: . The largest and strongest in the column. . Bean-shaped body. . Spinous process are attached to the large back muscles.


A lumbar vertebra


. The sacrum: . Consists of 5 vertebrae fuse to form a triangular-shaped bone. . Upper part articulates with the 5th lumbar vertebra to form the lumbosacral angle. . Inferior tip articulates with the coccyx. 87 . The sides articulates with the

. The coccyx: . Consists of 4 terminal vertebrae fused to form a small triangular bone. . The broad base articulates with the tip of the sacrum.


Sacrum and Coccyx


. Thoracic Cage - 25 bones: . 1 Sternum. . 12 pairs of ribs. . 12 thoracic vertebrae


. The bony thorax: . The thorax refers to the entire chest. . The bones of the thoracic cage are: . 1 sternum. . 12 pairs of ribs. . 12 thoracic vertebrae. . The thoracic cage encloses and protects the organs in the thoracic cavity and upper abdominal 91

The thoracic cage


. Sternum or breast bone: . A flat, narrow bone located in the center of the anterior thoracic wall. . Consists of three parts: . The upper part is the menubrium. . Articulates with the clavicles and 93 the 1st and 2nd ribs.

. Lowest and smallest part at the tip is the xiphoid process. . Articulates with the diaphragm, muscles of the anterior abdominal wall and the linea alba.


The sternum


. Ribs:

. 12 pairs of ribs form the bony lateral walls of the thoracic cage. . Increase in length from the 1st through 7th ribs then decrease in length to the 12th ribs. . Articulates posteriorly with the thoracic cage.

. Upper seven pairs of ribs are true ribs attach directly to the sternum by costal cartilages. . Lower five pairs attach indirectly to the sternum are false ribs. The 8th to 10th pairs attach to each other and then to 97

. The spaces in between the ribs are called intercoastal spaces are occupied by intercoastal muscles, blood vessels and nerves.



A typical rib




. Name the cranial bones:


. Name the facial bones.


Division of the skeleton:


. Bones of the appendicular skeleton: . 126 bones. . The shoulder girdle (pectoral) consists of: the upper extremities, anterior clavicle and posterior scapula. . The pelvic girdle (Hip) with the lower 105 limbs and two innominate bones

Division of the skeleton: . Appendicular skeleton.

Structure: . Pectoral (shoulder) girdle . Clavical . Scapula . Upper limbs . Humerus . Ulna . Carpals . Metacarpals . Phalanges . Pelvic (hip) girdle . Hip, pelvic or coxal bone . Lower limbs . Femur . Fibula . Tibia . . . . Patella Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges

Number of bones: 2 2 2 2 16 10 28 2 2 2 2 14 10 106 28

Bony skeleton: Anterior view.


. Pectoral (shoulder) girdle and upper limb: . Shoulder girdle attach the bones of the upper limbs to the axial skeleton. . Each shoulder girdle consists of: . 1 clavicle. 108


. Clavicle or collar bone: . A long, slender S-shaped bone. . Positioned horizontally above the first rib.


. Medial end articulates with the the manubrium of the sternum. . Lateral end articulates with the acromion process of the scapula.




. Scapula or shoulder blade: . A thin, flat, triangular bone on the posterior surface of thoracic wall. . Articulates with clavicle and humerus.



. Upper extremity: . Upper extremity (limb) consists of the bones of the arm, forearm and hand. . Each upper limb consists of the following bones: . 1 humerus. . 8 carpal bones. . 1 radius. . 5 metacarpal bones. . 1 ulna. . 14 phalanges.



. Humerus or The arm (Brachium): . Region between the shoulder and elbow. . Contain a single long bone. . The head is large smooth and rounded end fits into the scapula.



Shoulder joint.


. 2 blunt projections the greater and lesser tubercles for muscle attachment. . Shallow groove between

. Deltoid tuberosity is an elongated rough area along the shaft. . Lateral and medial epicondyles is attachment of forearam muscles.


The Humerus



. The forearm: . Region between the elbow and wrist. . Formed by the radius on the lateral side and ulna on the medial side.


. The radius: . Has a circular dislike head on proximal end. . Articulates with the capitulum of humerus and radial notch of ulna.


. Inferior to the head a small rough region the radial tuberosity is attachment for biceps muscle. . Distal end is the styloid process.


. The ulna: of . Medial aspect (little finger side) the forearm. . Longer than the radius. . Proximal end has a wrenchlike,


trochlear notch or semilunar notch. . Projection on the upper end of notch is the olecranon process which 127 fits

The right radius and ulna. Anterior view.


. The hand: . Composed of the wrist, palm and 5 fingers.


. Bones of the wrist (Carpus): . Three groups of bones in the wrist and hand. . 1st group of 8 short carpal bones form the wrist. . 2nd group of 5 long bones is the metacarpals that form the palm of 130 hand.

. Carpal or wrist bones: . Contains 8 small carpal bones. . Held together by ligaments. . Arranged in two rows of 4 bones. . From outside inwards they are: . Proximal row: scaphoid, lunate, triquetral, pisiform. . Distal row: trapezium, 131 trapezoid,

. Bones of the proximal row are associated with the wrist joint. . Distal row form joints with the metacarpal bones.


The bones of wrist, hand and fingers. Anterior view


. Metacarpal bones or the palm of the hand: . 5 metacarpal bones form the palm of the hand. . One in line with each finger. . Consists of a proximal base, an intermediate body and a distal 134 head.

. Heads of the metacarpals are commonly called the knuckles visible in a clenched fist. . Proximal ends articulate with the carpal bones and the distal ends with the phalanges.


. Phalanges or finger bones: . 14 phalanges in each hand 3 in each finger (proximal, middle and distal). . 2 in the thumb(pollex). Lacks a middle phalanx. . Proximal phalanges articulates 136 with

. In order from the thumb, the other fingers are the index finger, middle finger, ring finger and little finger.


. RECAP: . Upper extremity: . The humerus in the arm. . Radius(lateral) and ulna(medial) in the forearm. . 3 carpals in the wrist. . 5 metacarpals in the palm of hand. 138 . 14 phalanges in the fingers.

. Pelvic (Hip) girdle and lower limb: . Connects the trunk to the lower extremities. . Provides strong support dor thw weight of body. . Bones of the pelvic girdle are: . 2 innominate or hip (coxal) bones. . 1 sacrum.


. Innominate or hip bones: . An irregular flat bone. Formed by the union of bones the ilium, pubis and ischium. . Outer surface there is a deep depression, the acetabulum which holds the head of the femur to form the hip joint

The right innominate bone. Lateral view.


. Ilium: . Major portion and the largest of the coxal bone. . Has a large, flared region (ala or wing). . Superior curved border is the iliac crest which are attached many 142 muscles.



. The sciatic notch forms a deep indentation in the posterior region where the sciatic nerve passes.


The bones of the pelvis and the upper part of the femur.


. Ischium: . Lower, posterior portion of coxal bone. . The ischial tuberosity is the large, rough inferior portion of the ischium.


. Pubis: . Anterior portion of the coxal bone. . 2 pubic bones meet at the pubic symphysis. . Armlike extension is the pubic rami. . V-shaped arch 149 (pubic arch).

. Differences between male and female pelvis: . Shape of female pelvis allows for the passage of the baby during childbirth. . Female pelvis has lighter bones, is more shallow and rounded. 150

The differences in shape of the male and female pelvis.

. RECAP: . 2 ossa coxae or innominate (coxal) bones form the pelvic girdle. . Each coxal is formed by ilium, ischium and pubis fused together at acetabulum. 152 . Pubic bones meet anteriorly at

. Lower extremity: . Consists of 30 bones of the lower limb are: . Thigh - 1 femur. . Leg - 1 tibia. - 1 fibula. . Kneecap - 1 patella. . Foot - 7 tarsal bones. - 5 metatarsal bones. 153 - 14 phalanges (toes)


. Thigh bone (Femur): . Region from the hip to the . Largest, longest, and strongest in the body. . Large, smooth ball-like head (proximal end) has small deperssion(fovea capitis). . Articulates with acetabulum

knee. bone



. Below the head is a constricted neck of the femur that joins the shaft. . Prominent projection at the proximal end, the greater trochanter (lateral side) and the lesser trochanter (medial side). 157

The left femur



. The leg: . Region between the knee and the ankle. . Formed by: . The slender fibula on the lateral side. . The larger, weight-bearing tibia or


. Patella (kneecap): . A small, triangular bone in front of the joint between the femur and

tibia. . A sesamoid bone enclosed within the major tendon. . Functions are to maintain the position of tendon when the knee is 161


. Tibia (shin bone): . Larger, medial bone of the leg and bears the weight of the body. . Proximal end expands into a lateral condyle and a medial condyle which articulates with the condyles of 163 femur to form the knee joint and

. Tibial tuberosity is on the anterior surface below the condyles is a point of attachment for the patellar ligament. . The medial surface of the distal end of the tibia forms the medial malleolus 164 which articulates with the talus

. The fibulla: . Parallel and lateral to the tibia. . Considerably smaller than the . A long bone with a shaft and ends. . Upper end or head articulates the lateral condyle of the tibia

tibia. two



. Distal end has a projection called the lateral malleolus that articulates with the talus of the ankle.


The left tibia and fibula


. Bones of the foot: . Composed of: . The ankle. . Instep. . 5 toes.


. The tarsal bones (ankle): . Contains 7 bones held together by ligaments. . All are short bones made up of cancellous bone tissues covered with compact bone. . These bones support the body weight when standing.



. Calcaneum(heel bone)the largest and strongest tarsal bone located on the posterior part of the foot. . Large muscles of the calf are attached to the calcaneum through tendon of Achilles. . The talus rest on top of the 171 calcaneum.

. Ankle joint:


. Instep of the foot (Metatarsus):

. Contain 5 metatarsal long bones numbered 1 to 5 from the medial to the lateral position. . Each metatarsal consists of a proximal base, an intermediate body and a distal head. . First metatarsals is connected 173 to the

. The phalanges: . 14 bones of the toes. . Each consists of a proximal base, an intermediate body and a distal head. . The big toe (hallux) has two large, heavy phalanges – proximal and distal. 174 . The other four toes each have

Bones of the foot




. RECAP: . Lower extremity includes: . The femur in the thigh. . The tibia (medial) and fibula (lateral) in the leg. . 7 tarsal bones in the ankle. . 5 metatarsal bones in the instep of the foot. . 14 phalanges in the toes. . 1 patella.

6. Structure and movement of joints:


Definition: . Site where 2 bones articulate or come together. . Allow flexibility and movement of skeleton. . Allow attachment between bones.

. Classification and functions of joints: a. Synarthroses or Immovable joints (Fibrous joints). b. Amphiarthroses or Slightly movable joints (Cartilaginous joints). c. Diarthroses or Freely movable 180 joints (Synovial joints).

a. Synarthroses or Immovable joints (Fibrous joints): . Singular is synarthrosis. . Immovable joints or fixed joints. . Bones come in very close contact. . Separated only by a thin layer of fibrous connective tissues. . Eg: The sutures in the skull 181

b. Amphiarthroses or Slightly movable joints (Cartilaginous joints): . Slightly movable joints. . Bones are connected by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage. . Eg: Ribs connected to the sternum. Joints between the 182 vertebrae,


c. Diarthroses or Freely movable joints (Synovial joints): . Most joints in the adult body. . Freely movable joints. . Characteristics of these joints: . Ends of the opposing bones covered with hyaline cartilage. (articular cartilage). . Separated by a space(joint 184 cavity).

7. Synovial joints:


Synovial joint



. Components of the joints are enclosed in a dense fibrous joint capsule. . Outer layer of capsule consists of ligaments that hold the bones together. . Inner layer is the synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid into the 188 joint cavity for lubrication.

. Some have pads and cushions associated with them. . Knee has fibrocartilaginous pads called semilunar cartilages or lateral meniscus and medial meniscus.








Types of synovial joints: a. Ball and socket: . Head or ball of one bone articulates with a socket of another. . Eg: . Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction and rotation. . Shoulder and hip joints. 194

b. Hinge joints: . Allow the movements of flexion and extension only. . Eg: . Elbow, knee, ankle. . Joints between the atlas and the occipital bones. . Interphalanges joints 195 of

b. Hinge joints:

elbow hinge joint


c. Gliding joints: . Articular surfaces glide over each other. . Eg: . Joints between the carpal bones and the tarsal bones.

d. Pivot joints: . Movement is round one axis (rotation). . Eg: . Proximal and distal radioulnar joints. . Joint between the atlas. . Odontoid process of the 198

e. Condyloid and saddle joints:


. Movements take place round 2 axes. . Permit flexion, extension, and abduction, . Eg: . The wrist, temporomandibular, metacarpophalangeal metatarsophalangeal 199



. Muscles: . Specific Objectives: At the end of this session, the students should be able to: 1. identify the types of muscle tissue. 2. describe the structure and 201 characteristics of various types

3. identify the position and functions of various muscle. 4. describe the physiology of muscle contraction.


1. Types of muscle tissue: . 3 types of muscle tissue: a. Skeletal or striated muscle. . Under conscious control. . Attached to the bone via tendon. . Used to move the skeleton.

b. Visceral or smooth or nonstriated muscle. . Not under conscious control. . Cells are small, have one nucleus and are spindle shaped. . Found in hollow organs eg. stomach, blood vessels. . Participates in internal process 204 such as digestion and

c. Cardiac muscle. . Found in the wall of the heart.


2. Structure and characteristics of the various types of muscle: a. Excitability (irritability): . Ability to receives and respond to a stimuli from nervous system. b. Contractility: . Ability to shorten or contract. . When respond to stimulus, it shortens to produce movement.

• • • •


b. Contractility: . Ability to shorten or contract. . When respond to stimulus, it shortens to produce movement. c. Extensibility: . Ability to be stretched or extended. . When one muscle contracts, the other muscle relaxed and stretched.

d. Elasticity: . Ability to recoil or return to the original shape and length after contraction or extension.


Structure of skeletal muscle: . Considered an organ of muscular system. . Each muscle consists of skeletal muscle tissue, connective tissue, nerve tissue and blood or vascular


i. Whole skeletal muscle: . Tendon connects skeletal muscle to bone. . Muscle belly is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath (epimysium). . Muscle is divided into compartment, containing bundle of muscle fibers (fasiculus).


Whole skeletal muscle


. Perimysium - connective tissue surrounding fasiculus. . Endomysium - connective tissue surrounding individual muscle fibers (muscle cell).


ii. Skeletal muscle attachment: . Epimysium, perimysium and endomysium extend beyond the muscle belly to form a thick ropelike tendon. . Tendon form direct attachment to 213 the periosteum of bones.

iii. Skeletal muscle fibers: . Each skeletal muscle fiber is a single muscle cell. . Cell membrane surrounding muscle fiber is sarcolemma. . Sarcoplasm is the cytoplasm of muscle fiber.

3. Functions of skeletal muscle: Muscle contraction fulfills 4 important functions: a. Movement: . Result of muscle contraction. . Integrated action of joints, bones and skeletal muscles produces obvious movement. 215 . Subtle movement eg: facial

b. Posture: . Sitting and standing maintained as a result of muscle contraction. . Joint stability. c. Joint stability: . Tendons of muscle contribute to joint stability.

d. Heat production: . Maintain body temperature. . 85% of heat produced in the body is result of muscle contraction.


4. Types of movements:

a. gliding. b. angular movements. c. rotation.


a. Glidings: . A simple movement. . Flat bone surfaces move back and forth and side to side relative to one another. . Occurs at planar joints.

b. Angular movements: . Increase or decrease in the angle between articulating bones. . Principal angular movements are: . . . . Flexion. Extension. Abduction. Adduction.


. Flexon: . Decrease in the angle between articulating bones. . Eg: . Bending the head towards the chest. . Moving the humerus forward at the shoulder joint. . Moving the palm toward the forearm.


. Moving forearm toward the shoulder. . Moving the palm toward the forearm.


. Extension: . Increase in the angle between articulating bones. . Continuation of extension beyond the anatomical position is called hyperextension. . Eg: . Bending the humerus backward.


. Moving the head backward. . Moving palm backward at the wrist.


. Abduction: . Movement of a bone away from the midline. . Eg: . Lateral movement of the humerus upward. . Palm away from the body. . Femur away from the body.


. Adduction: . Movement of a bone toward the midline. . Eg: . Lateral movement of the humerus downward. . Palm toward the body. . Femur toward the body.


c. Rotation: . A bone revolves around its own longitudinal axis. . Pivot and ball-and-socket joints permit rotation. . Eg: . Turning the head from side to side.






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