Platyhelminthes

flatworms

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Multicelled Usually leaf-like, tape like rarely cyclindrical With three body layer Lacks body cavity, circulatory and respiratory structures Sexual organs are highly elaborated and complicated Involves 2 or more hosts

Consist of three classes
– Class Tubelaria – Class Trematodea – Class Cestodea

Cestoidea
– Order Pseudophyllidea- with ventral groove – Order Cyclophyllidea- with 4 suckers, armed or unarmed, sex pores that opens laterally

Cestodes or Tapeworms
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Habitat is in the small intestine Larvae inhabits the tissue Flattened, elongated ribbon like No circulatory system Body is divided by segment or proglottids Hermaphrodites No digestive system Nervous system confides in the scolex

Regions of the body
– Scolex- hold fast organ – Neck- area of growth – Proglottids
Immature  Mature  Gravid

Taenia solium
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Pork tapeworm Small intestine 2-7 meters with 800 to 1000 segments Armed scolex Testis is distributed throughout the dorsal plane With genital pore Gravid segment with uterine branches

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Mature egg is spherical, thick striated, fully developed oncospere with 3 pairs of hooklets Stays in the jejunum Lifespan- 25 years or more Pigs- intermediate host Pathology- abdominal discomfort, chronic indigestion, diarrhea Diagnosis- stool analysis, scotch tape swab

Treatment- praziquantel, niclosmide, quanacrine

Cystecercus cellulosae- larval infection of T. solium usually infects pig but human can also be infected
1. ingestion of food and water contaminated by human waste  Oral transmission by unclea hands of carriers of the adult worms  Internal autoinfection by the regurgitation of eggs into the stomach by reverse peristalsis.

Treatment- praziquantel or albendazole

Taenia saginata
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Beef tapeworm 5-10 meters up to 25m 1,000- 2,000 segments Unarmed scolex

Dipylidium caninum
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Double pored tapeworm Dog tapeworm 10-70cm 4 prominent deeply cupped suckers and armed rostellum rose thorn shaped spines. Neck is short and slender Mature and gravid segment are typically pumpkinseed or vase shaped. Double set of reproductive organ with genital pore on each lateral margin of the proglottid.

Life cycle
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Adult in small intestine Gravid proglottids detach from the strobila and pass out of the feces Capsules with eggs released from the ruptures segments Eggs in capsule ingested by flea Onscosphere is liberated and penetrate the GUT into homocoel Cysticercoid larvae develops into homocoel

Infective I.H. ingested by definitive host Cysticercoid larvae liberated in the small intestine Adult in the small intestine

Pathology and diagnosis
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Slight intestinal disturbance Loss of appetite Pruritus ani diarrhea Recovery of capsules or proglottids out in the feces Praziquantel, niclosamide, quanacrine

Hymenolepsis nana
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Dwarf tapeworm 2-4 cm Rhomboidal scolex has 4 sucker and bears a short, refractile rostelum armed with a single ring 20-30 Y shaped spines Broad mature segment with single genital pore on the sides 3 round testis and bilobed ovary

Pathology and treatment
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No symptoms In heavy infection cause autoinfectiom, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, anorexia Eggs in the stool Praziquantel, niclosamide used as an alternative

Hymenolepis diminuta
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Rat tapeworm 10-60 cm 800-1300 proglottids Small club shape scolex with 4 cupshaped suckers and rudimentary unarmed rostellum

Life cycle
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Adult in the small intestine Eggs pass out in the feces Eggs ingested by intermediate host Cysticercoid develops Infected intermediate host ingested by man Cystecercoid breaks out of intestinal villi to the lumen Scolex attaches to the mucosa of the small intestine

Pathology and treatment
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Light infection to man There is no autoinfection Stool diagnosis Niclosamide is the drug of choice praziquantel is the alternative.

Echinococcus granulosus
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Hydatid worm Smallest tape worm 0.27 to 0.9 cm in length Pyriform scolex with 4 suckers and with armed rostellum with 28-50 hooklets With short neck and 3 proglottids Lives 5-29 mos. In dogs as usual definitive host

Life cycle
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Adults in the small intestine Eggs in the feces of dogs Ingested by man Oncosphere hatch, penetrate intestinal wall Larvae enters the lymphatics In blood circulation Hydatid cyst in liver, lungs of intermediate host Hydatid ingested by dogs Scolices attach to small intestine of the dog

Hydatid cyst

Unilocular hydatid cyst is a slow-growing, tyumor like space occupying structure ebclosed by a laminated geminitive membrane. This membrane produces structures on it’s wall called brood capsule where tapeworm scolices arise. The brood capsules and daughter cyst disintegrates within the mother cyst liberating the accumulated protoscolices known as the hydatid sand.

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Mechanical or toxic pathology Unilocular cyst found in the bone canal is known as the casseous hydatid cyst In the brain may cause severe damage

Diagnosis and treatment
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Radiological examination Ultrasound Mebendazole or albendazole as drug of choice

Diphyllobothrium latum
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Broad fish tapeworm Ivory colored tapeworm Longest tapeworm in man 3-10 m with 3,000-4,000 proglottids Ileum and the jejenum Spatulate, almond shaped with 2 dorsoventral sucking grooves Single worm may discharge as many as 1 million ova daily

Eggs are broadly ovoid with inconspicuous operculum Thick shelled light golden brown with a knob on the bottom of the egg

Life cycle
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Small intestine Ova in the water Copepods of the genera cyclops and diaptomus serves as the first intermediate host Pike, salmon, whitefish and turbot serves as the secondary intermediate host Ingestion of the secondary host

Pathology and diagnosis

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