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Participation of the Hungarian

Defence Force in the UNs


Operations in Angola
09. 17. 2014. Lt Col JNOS BESENY, PhD
AGENDA
Angola
The Angolan conflict
UN operations
Hungarys involvement in the operations
Selection
Training
Equipment
Activities of peace-support personnel
Conclusions
Angola
Area: 1 246 700 km,
Variegated topography and climate
Polpulation: over 20 million over 100 ethnic groups
(Ovimbundu - 37%, Ambundu - 25%, Bakong - 13%,
Ovambo, Herrero, Lunda, Chokwe, Koisan, Mulat,
Portuguese, etc.)
Religions: Christians (75 %), Animists (20%), negligible
number of Muslims
Rich in natural resources, dynamically developing (mid-level
income) country, agriculture has a prominent role in the
economy
The Angolan Conflict I.
Portuguese colonisation between 1480 and 1919 Portuguese West
Africa, mass immigration of Portuguese
1961-1975 war of liberation against the Portuguese MPLA, FNLA,
UNITA
November 1975 Angolan Peoples Republic, president: Agostinho Neto
Conflict among MPLA on one side UNITA, FNLA organisations on the
other; USSR and Cuba support the government (MPLA)
March 1976 FNLA decively defeated, UNITA receives US and South-
African support; conflict is internationalised
November 1987 to March 1988 Cuito Cuanavale stalemate in the war
a question of negotiations
1988 negotiations begin with US mediation
January 1988 UNAVEM I.
22 December 1988 New York agreement, Cuban and South-African
forces withdrawn



The Angolan Conflict II.
1 May 1991 Bicesse peace agreement UNAVEM II. begins
operations
29-30 September 1992 parliamentary and presidential elections
October 1992 renewed conflict between MPLA and UNITA last nearly
10 years with variegated results
15 November 1994 Lusaka Accord
February 1995 to June 1997 UNAVEM III.
30 June 1997 to 26 February 1999 MONUA
1998 Third Angolan War
1999 the UN quits the Angolan conflict due to UNITA sanctions against
the organisation
22 February 2002 - Moxico Province, death of Savimbi
4 April 2002 real peace agreement between government and UNITA
reconstruction of the country begins

UNAVEM II.
The UNs second Angolan
Verification Mission (UNAVEM-II)
between June 1991 and February
1995
Mandate:
enforcement of the provisions of
the peace accord
verification of ceasefire provisions
supervision of Angolan police
observation of elections and
validation of results
Mediation between belligerents
Number of Hungarian military
personnel: 42
UNAVEM III.
UNs third Angolan Verification Mission (UNAVEM-III) -
between February 1995 and June 1997
Mandate:
enforcement of the provisions of the Lusaka Accord
verification of ceasefire provisions
support for the establishment of the states institutions
Conversion of UNITA from armed group to political party
disarmament of the armed groups and civilian population DDR
programmes
Number of Hungarian military personnel: about 20
MONUA
UN Observation Mission in Angola (MONUA) between 30 June 1997
and 26 february 1999
Mandate:
verify the reconstruction of state administration
promote and verify assimilation of UNITA organisational units into the
new government, armed forces, police and civilian life
verify and enforcement of the ceasefire provisions
collect and destroy weapons
support human rights for the population, create civil society, support
the creation and functioning of various civil organisations
support the work of humanitarian organisations, coordinate aid to
those in need
Number of Hungarian military personnel: 26


Hungary
Good relations with Angola economic, educational, military, police,
etc.
Monitoring the conflict from the 1980s
1988 possible Hungarian participation in resolving the conflict
mentioned
15 May 1991 Hungary gives official notice of its intention to participate
in UNAVEM II operations with 15 personnel
End of 1992 evacuation of the Hungarian Embassy, due to an
outbreak of hostilities
1993 Embassy reopened, then closed for good in accordance with
Govt Decision 3188/1993 part of the Hungarian contingent is
withdrawn
1993-1999 reduced Hungarian contingent participates in UNAVEM II.;
Hungary also participates in UNAVEM III. and MONUA
20 March 1999 last Hungarian peace-support personnel leave Angola








Selection
Personnel were selected by HDF GS Operations Directorate and
Personnel Directorate
Requirements:
Mid-level English
Excellent health
Peace operations experience

Of the 155 00 military personnel 94 individuals and the specialist
personnel of the Military Intelligence Bureau were qualified to
participate. Therefore diplomats from the Ministry of Foreign
Affairs (as reservist officers) were drafted.
The selection process included thorough medical examination
and language test (conversation, translation of professional text)
Training
The first group was trained at the Budapest installation of the HDF Force
Reduction Information and Verification Center. Relief groups were trained
by the Peace Support Training Centre in Budapest and Szolnok, with the
assistance of military and diplomatic personnel.
Experience gained in previous peace saupport operations was utilised
Training:
health
driving
radio message traffic
mapreading
basic mission tasks ceasefire verification, separation and
disarmament of armed groups, organisation ofelections
survival skills
UN training on location English test, driving test


Equipment
Standard Hungarian military equipment limited utility (70M
field uniform, boots, sleeping bag, sunglasses, duffle bag, etc)
Meteriel purchased specifically for the operation better utility
(mosquito net, athletic clothing, tropical uniform, etc)
Medical kit ration packs
Equipment purchased locally by deployed personnel (shoes,
boots, other equipment)
Equipment was generally suitable clothing service survey,
collection ofexperience due to reorganisation and shortage of
funds only minimal results
Activities of peace-support
personnel
Rotation, deployment to camps (A, B, C)
Classic peace support operation activities
Patrolling on foot, ground vehicle and helicopter
Observation of belligerents, verification , documentation and
reporting of their strength
Disarmament of belligerents, collection of weapons
Escorting humanitarian convoys
Runnig the parliamentary elections
Coordination, mediation between belligerents
Everyday activities camp management, self-sufficiency
(cooking, cleaning, carrying water, washing, etc)
Conclusions
Selection, training and equipment of the Hungarians deployed to
Angola (in spite of minor deficiencies) matched those of other
European nations. Due to our professionalism and human touch,
we were among the top peace support personnel.
Experience was not processed adequately, although some of it was
used in the Angola mission training
Some of the knowledge and experience gained in Angola was lost
to the HDF
In accordance with international trends, Africas role is becoming
more important, due to economic, political, diplomatic and other
(humanitarian, migration, etc.) reasons
The task is to involve those who participated in the mission and
process the Angolan experience, then publish it to the widest
possible audience

Questions?
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!