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MOTIVATION THEORY AND

PRACTICE
ENGAGEMENT
One of the hot topics in management.
A person is truly engagement when that
person is says Im willing to give a little bit
more; Im willing to help my team member
when I see theyre in need.

SIGNS OF HIGH ENGAGEMENT
Willing to look for problems and fix them.
Willing to do more than just meeting job
requirements.
Willing to stay late, start early, do the extras.
Willing to help others who are stuck or
overwhelmed.
Willing to do things better; not accept the status
quo
Willing to think ahead, craft ideas and plans for
future.
INDIVIDUAL NEEDS AND MOTIVATION
Motivation accounts for the level, direction
and persistence of effort expended at work.
Need unfulfilled physiological desire.
LOWER ORDER NEEDS
HIGHER ORDER NEEDS
MASLOWS HIERARCY OF NEEDS
Deficit Principle states that a satisfied need
does not motivate behavior.
People are expected to act in ways that satisfy
deprived needs.
Progression Principle state that a need isnt
activated until the next lower-level need is
satisfied.
What Satisfied Lower Order Needs?
Social Needs
Safety Needs
Physiological Needs
Friendly Coworkers
Interaction with customers
Pleasant Supervisors
Safe working conditions
Job Security
Based Compensations & Benefits
Rest and refreshments breaks
Physical comfort on the job
Reasonable work hours
What Satisfied Higher Order Needs?
Self Actualization
Needs
Esteem Needs
Creative and Challenging Job
Participation in decision making
Job flexibility and autonomy
Responsibility of an important job
Promotion to higher status job
Praise and recognition from boss
ERG THEORY
Proposed by Clayton Alderfer.
This theory collapses Maslows five needs into
three categories:
Existence needs desires for physical well
being
Relatedness needs desires for good
interpersonal relationships.
Growth needs desires for continued
psychological growth and development
ERG THEORY
Frustration-regression principle states that
an already satisfied need can become
reactivated when a higher-level need is
blocked.
TWO FACTOR THEORY
Frederick Herzberg
Created through a pattern of 4,000 interviews.
Satisfier factor found in job content, such as
sense of achievement, recognition,
responsibility, advancement, or personal
growth.
Hygiene factor found in the job context,
such as working conditions, interpersonal
relations, organizational policies and salary
Influenced by
Hygiene
Factors
Working Conditions
Coworker Relations
Policies and rules
Supervisor quality
Base wage, salary
Influenced by
Satisfied
Factors
Achievement
Recognition
Responsibility
Work itself
Advancement
Personal Growth
Job Dissatisfaction Job Satisfaction
Improving the satisfier
factors increases job
satisfaction
Improving the hygiene
factors decreases job
dissatisfaction
TWO FACTOR THEORY
ACQUIRED NEEDS THEORY
David McClelland
Ask people by asking people to view pictures
and write stories about what they see.
Need for achievement desire to do
something better, to solve problems or to
master complex task.
Need for power desire to control, influence,
or be responsible for other people.


ACQUIRED NEEDS THEORY
Needs for affiliation desire to establish and
maintain good relations with people.

PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
EQUITY THEORY
What do you think about news?
Company Abercrombie and Fitchs stock declined
79% in value and 9% of employees lost their jobs.
But the CEOs pay went up to 39%.
In 1965, the average CEO is paid 24 times than
the average worker.
In 1994 its 90 times.
By 2006, its 364 times.


EQUITY THEORY
Developed by J. Stacy Adams.
Based on the logic of social comparisons and the
idea that perceived inequity is a motivating state.
How fairly am I paid at work?s
Equity theory says that when people believe that
they have been unfairly treated in comparison to
others, they will be motivated to eliminate the
discomfort and restore a sense of perceived
equity to the situations.


Equity and Social Comparisons
Personal rewards
Vis--vis
Personal Inputs
Others rewards
Vis--vis
Others inputs
PERCEIVED EQUITY
The individual is satisfied
and does not change
behavior
PERCEIVED INEQUITY
The individual feels
discomfort and acts to
eliminate the inequity
Equity and Social Comparison
A person who is treated unfairly compared to
others will be motivated to act in ways that
reduce the perceived inequity.
If thats all Im going to get, Im going to do a
lot less.
Next, stop the boss office. I should get what I
deserved.
Compared to his situation, Im better off.
Im quitting if this is how I am treated.
EXPECTANCY THEORY
Victor Vroom
People will do what they can do when they
want to do it.
Expectancy a persons belief that working
hard will result in high task performance.
Instrumentality a persons belief that
various outcomes will occur as a result of task
performance.
EXPECTANCY THEORY
Valence the value a person assigns to work
related conditions.
Motivation = Expectancy x Instrumentality x
Valence
EXPECTANCY THEORY
EXPECTANCY

If I work hard, will I
succeed?


INSTRUMENTALITY

If I succeed will I be
rewarded?


VALENCE

What does the
reward for this hard
work and performance
achievement mean to
me?
EXPECTANCY THEORY
To maximize expectancy, people must believe
in their abilities.
To maximize instrumentalities, people must
see the link between high performance and
work outcomes.
To maximize positive valence, people must
value the outcomes associated with high
performance.
LOCKES GOAL SETTING THEORY
Set specific goals
Set challenging goals
Build goal acceptance and commitment
Clarify goal priorities.
Provide feedback on goal accomplishments
Reward goal accomplishments.
SELF-EFFICACY THEORY
A persons belief that they are capable of
performing a task.
REINFORCEMENT THEORY
E.L. Thordike
Law of effect states that behavior followed
by pleasant consequences is likely to be
repeated; behavior followed by unpleasant
consequences is not.
REINFORCEMENT STRATEGIES
Operant Condition the control of behavior
by manipulating is consequences.
Positive Reinforcement strengthens
behavior by making a desirable consequence
contingent on its occurrence.
Negative Reinforcement strengthens
behavior by making the avoidance of an
undesirable consequence contingent on its
occurrence.
REINFORCEMENT STRATEGIES
Punishment discourages behavior by making
an unpleasant consequence contingent on its
occurrence.
Extinction discourage behavior by making
the removal of a desirable consequence
contingent on its occurrence.
Managers
Objectives
Individual
Behavior
Reinforcement
Strategy
Type of
Reinforcement
Meets production
goals with zero
defects
Praise employee
and give rewards
Positive
Reinforcement


High Quality
Production
Stop complaining
to employee
Negative
Reinforcement
Reprimand
Employee
Punishment
Meets production
goals but with
many defects
Withhold praise
and rewards
Extinction
REINFORCEMENT STRATEGIES
Shaping positive reinforcement of successive
approximations t the desired behavior.
Continuous reinforcement rewards each
time a desired behavior occurs.
Intermittent reinforcement rewards
behavior only periodically.
GUIDELINES FOR POSITIVE
REINFORCEMENT
Clearly identify desired work behaviors
Maintain a diverse inventory of rewards
Inform everyone what must be done to get
rewards.
Recognize individual differences when
allocating rewards.
Follow the laws of immediate and contingent
reinforcement.
GUIDELINGS FOR PUNISHMENT
Tell the person what is being done wrong.
Tell the person what is being done right.
Make sure the punishment matches the
behavior.
Administer the punishment in private.
Follow the laws of immediate and contingent
reinforcement.
MOTIVATION AND JOB DESIGN

JOB DESIGN
Arranging work task for individuals and
groups.
JOB SIMPLIFICATION
Employs people in clearly defined and
specialized tasks with narrow job scope.
AUTOMATION
Total mechanization of a job.
JOB ROTATION
Increases tasks variety by periodically shifting
workers between different jobs.
JOB ENLARGEMENT
Increases task variety by combining two or
more jobs that are previously done separate
workers.
JOB ENRICHMENT
Increases job depth by adding work planning
and evaluating duties normally performed by
supervisor.


NARROW


WIDER


WIDE


LOW


LOW


HIGH
JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL
Skill variety the degree to which a job
requires a variety of different activities to
carry out the work, and involves the use of a
number of different skills and talents of the
individual.
Task Identity the degree to which the job
requires completion of a whole and
identifiable piece of work, one that involves
doing a job from beginning to end with a
visible outcome.
JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL
Task Significance the degree to which the
job has substantial impact on the lives or work
of others people elsewhere in the
organization, or in the external environment.
Autonomy the degree to which the job gives
the individual freedom, independence, and
discretion in scheduling work and in choosing
procedures for carrying it out.
JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL
Feedback from the job itself the degree to
which work activities required by the job
result in the individual obtaining direct and
clear information on their performance.

Experienced meaningfulness of
the work

Experienced Responsibility for
outcomes of the work

Knowledge of actual results of
the work.
Skill Variety
Task Identity
Task Significance
Autonomy
Feedback


High internal
work
motivation
High growth
satisfaction
High general
job
satisfaction
High work
effectiveness
Employee growth-need strength
Knowledge and skill
Context satisfaction
IMPROVING
JOB
CHARACTERISTICS
VERTICAL
LOADING
INCREASE JOB
DEPTH
HORIZONTAL
LOADING
EXPAND JOB
SCOPE
Form natural units of work
Combine tasks
Establish Client Relationships
Open Feedback Channels
Practice Vertical Loading
JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL
ALTERNATIVE WORK SCHEDULES

FLEXIBLE WORKING HOURS
Gives employees some choice in daily work
hours
COMPRESSED WORKWEEK
Allows a fulltime job to completed in less than
five days.
JOB SHARING
Splits one job between two people.
TELECOMMUTING
Involves using IT to work at home or outside
the office.
CONTINGENCY AND PART TIME WORK
Permatempts
People are employed on a part-time and
temporary basis to supplement a permanent
workforce.