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REGRESSION

INTRODUCTION

Bivariate distribution-A distribution in which each

Multivariate distribution-A distribution in which each

Correlation-It is a statistical tool which is used to

There are various methods used to study and measure

them is correlation analysis.

“When the relationship is of a quantitative nature, the

measuring the relationship and expressing it in a

brief formula is known as correlation”

Types of correlation

Positive and negative correlation.

Positive and negative correlation

Positive or direct correlation-if the increase in the

values of one variable results, on an average, in a

corresponding increase in the values of the other

variable.

the values of one variable results, on the average,

in a corresponding decrease in the values of the

other variable.

Linear and non-linear correlation

Linear correlation-corresponding to a unit change

in one variable, there is a constant change in the

other variable over the entire range of the values.

corresponding to a unit change in one variable, the

other variable does not change at a constant rate

but at fluctuating rate.

Correlation and Causation

Causation always implies correlation but the converse is

not true.

The reason for high degree of correlation between variables

Mutual dependence.

factors.

Pure chance.

Methods of studying correlation

Commonly used methods for studying the correlation

between two variables are

Scatter diagram method.

method).

Two-way frequency table.

Rank method.

Scatter diagram method

Scatter diagram is one of the simplest ways of

diagrammatic representation of a bivariate distribution

and provides us one of simplest tools of ascertaining

the correlation between two variables.

The following points should be noted in interpreting

the scatter diagram regarding the correlation between

the two variables:

If the points are very dense, i.e. close to each other a fairly

good amount of correlation may be expected. If points are

widely scattered, a poor correlation may be expected.

If the points reveal any trend the variables are said to be

uncorrelated.

If all the points lie on a straight line starting form the

correlation is perfect and positive, and if all the points

lie on a straight line starting form left top and coming

down to right bottom, the correlation is perfect and

negative.

If there is upward trend rising from lower left hand corner to

upper right hand corner, the correlation is positive. If the

points depict a downward trend form the upper left hand

corner to lower right corner the correlation is negative.

Karl Pearson’s coefficient of correlation-A

mathematical method for measuring the intensity or

the magnitude of linear relationship between two

variable series.

we are not very serious about its precision.

Rank correlation method

Statistical series in which the variables under

measurement but can be arranged in serial order.

Correlation coefficient can be found under two

conditions

When actual ranks are given.

Regression

Regression analysis, in the general sense, means the

variable from the known value of the other variable.

Linear regression-If the regression curve is a straight

line.

Non-linear regression-If the regression curve is not a

straight line.

Correlation Vs. Regression Analysis

Correlation literally means the relationship between

two or more variables which vary. Regression means

stepping back or returning to the average value.

relationship between the variable under study.

Regression clearly indicates the cause and effect

relationship.

Correlation coefficient is a linear relationship between

x and y and is independent of the units of

measurement. It is pure number lying between + or –

1. Regression is absolute measure and the variable x

and y are dependent on each other.

linear relationship between the variables and

therefore, has limited applications. Regression

analysis has wider application as it studies linear as

well as non-linear relationship between the variables.

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