Spin-Orbit Resonance Planetary Physics EP 420

Spin-Orbit Resonance
in Planetary Bodies
Harsh Menon
Spin-Orbit Resonance Planetary Physics EP 420
Overview

An Introduction to Tidal Forces

Spin-Orbit Resonance

Resonance Criteria

Capture into Resonance

Surface of Section

Conclusion
Spin-Orbit Resonance Planetary Physics EP 420
Introduction to Tidal Forces

Force produced due to “gravitational
gradient or variation of gravitational force
across the body”

Proportional to radius of larger body

Inversely proportional to distance between
the centers of the bodies
Spin-Orbit Resonance Planetary Physics EP 420
Spin-Orbit Resonance

Interaction between a planet’s orbital
angular momentum and a satellite’s
gravitational permanent quadrupole
moment

Resonance results when there is a simple
integer or near integer relationship
between the spin period and orbital period
of the satellite
Spin-Orbit Resonance Planetary Physics EP 420
Spin-Orbit Resonance
pM − · θ γ
Spin-Orbit Resonance Planetary Physics EP 420
Spin-Orbit Resonance

Result in oscillations called librations

http://aa.usno.navy.mil/graphics/Moon_movie.gif
The equation of motion of the satellite is
given by:

Analogous to equation of motion for a
pendulum
γ ω γ 2 sin
2
1
))] , ( ( [
2
0
e p H sign − ·
 
Spin-Orbit Resonance Planetary Physics EP 420
Spin-Orbit Resonance

Libration Frequency
5 . 0
0
) , ( 3
]
]
]

,
`

.
|

· e p H
C
A B
n ω
4 3
3 4 2 3
4 4
16
533
) , 3 (
48
845
) ,
2
5
(
16
123
2
7
) ,
2
3
(
16
1
2
5
1 ) , 1 (
16
1
2
1
) ,
2
1
(
0 ) , 0 (
48
1
) ,
2
1
(
24
1
) , 1 (
e e H e e H
e e e H e e e H e e e H
e H e e H e e H
· ·
− · + − · + − ·
· · − · −
Spin-Orbit Resonance Planetary Physics EP 420
Spin-Orbit Resonance

Physical Meaning of γ

“Orientation of the long axis of the satellite
on the passage of the satellite through the
pericenter or that it is a stroboscopic angle
that is evaluated when M=0”
Spin-Orbit Resonance Planetary Physics EP 420
Spin-Orbit Resonance
http://cseligman.com/text/planets/DayOnMercury.swf
Spin-Orbit Resonance Planetary Physics EP 420
Resonance Criteria

Loop is closed

p is integer multiple of ½

Torque acting on satellite >Torque due to
tidal drag
Spin-Orbit Resonance Planetary Physics EP 420
Capture into Resonance

Pendulum Analogy

Capture into Resonance

Variation of average tidal torque with dγ/dt
Spin-Orbit Resonance Planetary Physics EP 420
Surface of Section
Spin-Orbit Resonance Planetary Physics EP 420
Surface of Section
Spin-Orbit Resonance Planetary Physics EP 420
Surface of Section

Chirikov’s Criterion

Chaotic behavior depends on eccentricity
and asphericity parameter

Linearly on e, exponentially on α
C
A B ) ( 3 −
· α
Spin-Orbit Resonance Planetary Physics EP 420
Conclusions

Spin-Orbit Resonance

Resonance Criteria

Capture into Resonance

Surface of Section
Spin-Orbit Resonance Planetary Physics EP 420
Recommendations

Current theory “naïve”

More accurate theory - Hamiltonian
Theory on Tidal Forces
Spin-Orbit Resonance Planetary Physics EP 420
References

Murray, C.D. & Dermott, S.F. (1999). Solar
System Dynamics. New York: Cambridge
University Press.