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Kalpakjian Schmid

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology


2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-1
CHAPTER 12
Metal Casting: Design, Materials, and
Economics
Kalpakjian Schmid
Manufacturing Engineering and Technology
2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-2
Casting Design Modifications
Figure 12.1 Suggested design
modifications to avoid defects
in castings. Note that sharp
corners are avoided to reduce
stress concentrations.
Kalpakjian Schmid
Manufacturing Engineering and Technology
2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-3
Casting Cross-Sections
Figure 12.2 Examples of designs showing the importance of maintaining uniform cross- sections in
castings to avoid hot spots and shrinkage cavities.
Kalpakjian Schmid
Manufacturing Engineering and Technology
2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-4
Avoiding Shrinkage Cavities
Figure 12.3 Examples of
design modifications to avoid
shrinkage cavities in castings.
Source: Steel Castings
Handbook, 5th ed. Steel
Founders' Society of America,
1980. Used with permission.
Kalpakjian Schmid
Manufacturing Engineering and Technology
2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-5
Chills
Figure 12.4 The use of
metal padding (chills) to
increase the rate of cooling
in thick regions in a casting
to avoid shrinkage cavities.
Source: Steel Castings
Handbook, 5th ed. Steel
Founders' Society of
America, 1980. Used with
permission.
Kalpakjian Schmid
Manufacturing Engineering and Technology
2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-6
Normal Shrinkage Allowance for Some Metals
Cast in Sand Molds
TABLE 12.1
Metal Percent
Gray cast iron
White cast iron
Malleable cast iron
Aluminum alloys
Magnesium alloys
Yellow brass
Phosphor bronze
Aluminum bronze
High-manganese steel
0.831.3
2.1
0.781.0
1.3
1.3
1.31.6
1.01.6
2.1
2.6
Kalpakjian Schmid
Manufacturing Engineering and Technology
2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-7
Parting Line
Figure 12.5 Redesign of a
casting by making the parting
line straight to avoid defects.
Source: Steel Casting
Handbook, 5th ed. Steel
Founders' Society of America,
1980. Used with permission.
Kalpakjian Schmid
Manufacturing Engineering and Technology
2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-8
Casting Design
Modifications
Figure 12.6
Examples of
casting design
modifications.
Source: Steel
Casting
Handbook, 5th
ed. Steel
Founders'
Society of
America, 1980.
Used with
permission.
Kalpakjian Schmid
Manufacturing Engineering and Technology
2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-9
Desirable and Undesirable Die-Casting
Practices
Figure 12.7 Examples of
undesirable and desirable design
practices for die-cast parts. Note
that section-thickness uniformity is
maintained throughout the part.
Source: American Die Casting
Institute.
Kalpakjian Schmid
Manufacturing Engineering and Technology
2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-10
Mechanical Properties for Various Groups of
Cast Alloys
Figure 12.8 Mechanical properties for various groups of cast alloys. Note that gray iron has very little
ductility and toughness, compared with most other cast alloys, some of which undergo considerable
elongation and reduction of area in tension. Note also that even within the same group, the properties of
cast alloys vary over a wide range, particularly for cast steels. Source: Steel Founders' Society of
America.
Kalpakjian Schmid
Manufacturing Engineering and Technology
2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-11
Mechanical Properties for Various Groups of
Cast Alloys (cont.)
Figure 12.8 Mechanical properties for various groups of cast alloys. Note that gray iron has very little
ductility and toughness, compared with most other cast alloys, some of which undergo considerable
elongation and reduction of area in tension. Note also that even within the same group, the properties of
cast alloys vary over a wide range, particularly for cast steels. Source: Steel Founders' Society of America.
Kalpakjian Schmid
Manufacturing Engineering and Technology
2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-12
Typical Applications for Casting and Casting
Characteristics
TABLE 12.2
Type of alloy Application Castability* Weldability* Machinability*
Aluminum Pistons, clutch housings, intake
manifolds
E F GE
Copper Pumps, valves, gear blanks,
marine propellers
FG F FG
Ductile iron Crankshafts, heavy-duty gears G D G
Gray iron Engine blocks, gears, brake disks
and drums, machine bases
E D G
Magnesium Crankcase, transmission housings GE G E
Malleable iron Farm and construction machinery,
heavy-duty bearings, railroad
rolling stock
G D G
Nickel Gas turbine blades, pump and
valve components for chemical
plants
F F F
Steel (carbon and
low alloy)
Die blocks, heavy-duty gear
blanks, aircraft undercarriage
members, rail-road wheels
F E F
Steel (high alloy) Gas turbine housings, pump and
valve components, rock crusher
jaws
F E F
White iron Mill liners, shot blasting nozzles,
railroad brake shoes, crushers and
pulverizers
G VP VP
Zinc Door handles, radiator grills, E D E
*E, excellent; G, good; F, fair; VP, very poor; D, difficult.
Kalpakjian Schmid
Manufacturing Engineering and Technology
2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-13
Properties and Typical Applications of Cast Irons
TABLE 12.3
Cast iron Type
Ultimate
tensile
strength
(MPa)
Yield
strength
(MPa)
Elongation
in 50 mm
(%) Typical applications
Gray Ferritic
Pearlitic
Martensitic
170
275
550
140
240
550
0.4
0.4
0
Pipe, sanitary ware
Engine blocks, machine tools
Wearing surfaces
Ductile
(Nodular)
Ferritic
Pearlitic
Tempered
martensite
415
550
825
275
380
620
18
6
2
Pipe, general service
Crankshafts, highly stressed parts
High-strength machine parts,wear-resistant
parts
Malleable Ferritic
Pearlitic
Tempered
martensite
365
450
700
240
310
550
18
10
2
Hardware, pipe fittings, general engineering
service
Railroad equipment, couplings
Railroad equipment, gears, connecting rods
White Pearlitic 275 275 0 Wear-resistant parts, mill rolls
Kalpakjian Schmid
Manufacturing Engineering and Technology
2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-14
Mechanical Properties of Gray Cast Irons
TABLE 12.4
ASTM
class
Ultimate
tensile
strength
(MPa)
Compressive
strength
(MPa)
Elastic
modulus
(GPa)
Hardness
(HB)
20 152 572 66 to 97 156
25 179 669 79 to 102 174
30 214 752 90 to 113 210
35 252 855 100 to 119 212
40 293 965 110 to 138 235
50 362 1130 130 to 157 262
60 431 1293 141 to 162 302
Kalpakjian Schmid
Manufacturing Engineering and Technology
2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-15
Properties and Typical Applications of Cast
Nonferrous Alloys
TABLE 12.5
Alloys (UNS) Condition
Ultimate
tensile
strength
(MPa)
Yield
strength
(MPa)
Elongation
in 50 mm
(%) Typical applications
Aluminum alloys
195 (AO1950)
319 (AO3190)
356 (AO3560)
Heat treated
Heat treated
Heat treated
220280
185250
260
110220
125180
185
8.52
21.5
5
Sand castings
Sand castings
Permanent mold castings
Copper alloys
Red brass (C83600)
Yellow brass (C86400)
Annealed
Annealed
235
275
115
95
25
25
Pipe fittings, gears
Hardware, ornamental
Manganese bronze
(C86100)
Annealed 480 195 30 Propeller hubs, blades
Leaded tin bronze
(C92500)
Annealed 260 105 35 Gears, bearings, valves
Gun metal (C90500) Annealed 275 105 30 Pump parts, fittings
Nickel silver (C97600) Annealed 275 175 15 Marine parts, valves
Magnesium alloys
AZ91A
AZ63A
AZ91C
EZ33A
HK31A
QE22A
F
T4
T6
T5
T6
T6
230
275
275
160
210
275
150
95
130
110
105
205
3
12
5
3
8
4
Die castings
Sand and permanent mold
castings
High strength
Elevated temperature
Elevated temperature
Highest strength
Kalpakjian Schmid
Manufacturing Engineering and Technology
2001 Prentice-Hall Page 12-16
General Cost Characteristics of Casting
Processes
TABLE 12.6
Cost*
Process Die Equipment Labor
Production
rate (Pc/hr)
Sand L L LM <20
Shell-mold LM M-H LM <50
Plaster LM M MH <10
Investment MH L-M H <1000
Permanent mold M M LM <60
Die H H LM <200
Centrifugal M H LM <50
* L, low; M, medium; H, high.