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World Trend in Shipping and

Port Reform
Murdjito, MSc.Eng.
Head of Laboratory of Operational Research and Design
Department of Ocean Engineering ITS, Surabaya
Mobile: 0818395983
Categorization of Marine Vessels
A list of representative vessel types
Cargo Vessel
Ship proportions with possible significant effect on ship
design requirements
(from Taggart, 1980).
Global Trend in Shipping
Continued Growth in Container Traffic
Increasing Ship Size
Consolidation of Shipping Routes
Consolidation/ Globalisation of Shipping
Consolidation of Port Operation

Continued Growth in Containers
More than 95% of the world GC is now
transported in Containers
Containers make low-cost frequent service
available to shipper of all services
The simplicity has led to huge increase in
word trade
The growth in conatiner traffic has no

Fleet of the 189 Flag States
Comparing UE - Asia
Seatrade Scenarios 1950 -2020

Container Traffic is still growing
Containerships: Number of ships
constructed per year.
Containerships: DWT constructed
per year.
Ship over 2000s to move 70%
Increasing Ship Size
Container ships have followed the growth
of conatinerized shipping
In 1988, lines introduced the first ship >
panama canal (Post-Panamax > 4000 TEU)
To day lines are opearting vessel capable of
carrying 17,500 TEU vessel
Ship Size Trends in 2011
Growth of Large Hub Ports
Traffic is dominated by large efficient
conatiner terminal able to meet tight
schedules low of turnaround times
90 terminals have througput of more than
40,000 TEU/year in 2000
Only 12 of these ports are not located with
500 km of the circumnavigation route
World Largest Container terminal and main shipping route
Consolidation of shipping lines
Driven by:
Globalisation (desire to serve customers & markets)
Technology (larger vessel, computer system)
Demand for higher efficiency and door-to-door
Merger and acquisition
P&O Nedlloyd
CP ships takes over Lykes, Contship, ANZDL,
Americana Ship
Consolidation of Port Operators
Drivern by:
Demand for higher efficeiency to serve expensive ships requiring larger
investment in crane, deep water and IT
Bergaining power of largest lines
Door-to-door logistics vertical integration (shipping olines want
control port)
Five major terminal operators have emerged:
Hustchinson (Hongkong)
P&O (Australia)
PSA (Singapore)
CSX World Terminal
World Largest Port Operators
Ttrend in Port Reform
Move toward increasing private
Decentralization and devolution of
control to local authorities
Ports have been partmenrships between
private and public operators
Common Port Structures
Example Port Reform England
Columbia (1993)
Clolumbia: productivity up tariff
Martin Stopford, Trends & Possibilities: For the
Development of the Shipping Industry, Managing
Director Clarkson Research Ltd, 2011
Peter Kieran, World Trends in Shipping and Port
Reforms, 2003
Jennifer K. Waters, Shipping Trends Analysis,
Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean
Engineering, United States Naval Academy,
Annapolis, MD 21402, September 2000.