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# By: Group 8

## Amirah Binti Mat Jamal

Asmahani Binti Barjok
Norain Binti Janain
Nurul Fatiha Binti Abd. Hadi
Siti NorFaridatul Aisyah Shuhaimi
NOZZLE
device designed to control the direction or
characteristics of fluid (especially to increase velocity) as
it exits (or enters) an enclosed chamber or pipe.
It is generally a pipe or tube of varying diameter, that is
used to direct or modify the flow of liquid or gas.

What is nozzle?
it is frequently use to control the rate of
flow, direction and/or the pressure of the
steam that emerges from them.
Funtions of nozzle
a) Converging nozzle
b) Diverging nozzle
c) Converging-Diverging nozzle (de Laval nozzle)
Types of nozzle
accelerate fluids, but
do not exceed the speed of sound in the fluid due to
sonic choking at the narrowest point.
CONVERGING NOZZLE
Consider the nozzle is attached to a reservoir with
pressure Pr and temperature Tr.
Since the reservoir is sufficiently large, thus the
velocity of the nozzle inlet is negligible (Vr=0).
Therefore, the flow through the nozzle is
approximated as isentropic, the stagnation pressure
(P0) and stagnation temperature (T0) is equal to the
reservoir temperature (Tr) and pressure (Pr).

State 1 : Pb= P0, there is flow and pressure is constant
State 2 : Pb> P0, pressure along nozzle decreases
State 3 : Pb= P*, flow at exit is sonic, creating
maximum flow rate, called choked flow.
State 4 and 5 : Pb< P*, there is no change in flow or
pressure distribution just as in situation
3.

Under steady flow conditions, mass flow rate is
constant

Substituting T and P

Mass flow rate is a function of stagnation properties, flow
area, and Ma
The maximum mass flow rate through a nozzle with a
given throat area A* is fixed by theP0 and T0 and occurs
at Ma = 1.

This principal is important for chemical processes,
medical devices, flow meters, and anywhere the mass
flux of a gas must be known and controlled.

Gas flows through the nozzle from a region of high pressure
(usually referred to as the chamber) to one of low pressure
(referred to as the ambient or tank).
The chamber is usually big enough so that any flow velocities
here are negligible. The pressure here is denoted by the symbol p
c
.
Gas flows from the chamber into the converging portion of the
nozzle, past the throat, through the diverging portion and then
exhausts into the ambient as a jet.
The pressure of the ambient is referred to as the 'back pressure'
and given the symbol p
b
.

Converging-Diverging Nozzle
1. When P0 > Pb > Pc, the flow remains subsonic throughout
the nozzle, and the
mass flow is less than that for choked flow. The fluid velocity
increases in the
first (converging) section and reaches a maximum at the throat
(but Ma<1).
However, most of the gain in velocity is lost in the second
(diverging) section
of the nozzle, which acts as a diffuser. The pressure decreases
in the expense
of velocity in the diverging section.

2. When Pb = PC , the throat pressure becomes P* and the
fluid achieves sonic
velocity at the throat. But the diverging section of the nozzle still
acts as a
diffuser, slowing the fluid to subsonic velocities. The mass flow
rate that was
increasing with decreasing Pb also reaches it maximum value.
Recall that P*
is the lowest pressure that can be obtained at the throat, and the
sonic
velocity is the highest velocity that can be achieved with a
converging nozzle.
Thus, lowering Pb further has no influence on the fluid flow in the
converging
part of the nozzle or the mass flow rate through the nozzle.
However, it does
influence the character of the flow in the diverging section.
3. When PC > Pb > PE , the fluid that achieved a sonic velocity at the throat
continues accelerating to supersonic velocities in the diverging section as
the pressure decreases. This acceleration comes to sudden stop, however,
as a normal shock develops at a section between the throat and the exit
plane, which causes a sudden drop in velocity to subsonic levels and a
sudden increase in pressure. The fluid then continues to decelerate further in
the remaining part of the converging-diverging nozzle. Flow through the
shock is highly irreversible, and thus it cannot be approximated as
isentropic. The normal shock moves downstream away from the throat as Pb
is decreased and it approaches the nozzle exit plane as Pb approaches Pb.
When Pb = PE , the normal shock forms at the exit plane of the nozzle. The
flow is supersonic through the entire diverging section in this case, and it can
be approximated as isentropic. However, the fluid velocity drops to subsonic
levels just before leaving the nozzle as it crosses the normal shock.
4. When PE > Pb > 0, the flow in the diverging section is supersonic, and the
fluid expands to PF at the nozzle exit with no normal shock forming within
the nozzle. Thus, the flow through the nozzle can be approximated as
isentropic. When Pb = PF , no shocks occur within or outside the nozzle.
When Pb < PF, irreversible mixing and expansion waves occur downstream
of the exit plane of the nozzle. When Pb > PF, however, the pressure of the
fluid increases from PF to Pb irreversibly in the wake of the nozzle exit,
creating what are called oblique shocks
When the flow accelerates (subsonic or
supersonically) the pressure decreases.
The pressure increases instantaneously across
a shock.

Summary points:

steam and gas turbines, aircraft and spacecraft
propulsion systems, and even industrial blasting
nozzles and torch nozzles
APPLICATION:
Aircraft and spacecraft propulsion
Industrial nozzle