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Systems Analysis and Design: The Big Picture Computers:Tools for an Information Age
Systems Analysis and Design:
The Big Picture
Computers:Tools for an Information Age
Objectives Describe the principal functions of the systems analyst analysis tools Explain the concept of prototyping
Objectives
Describe the principal functions of the
systems analyst
analysis tools
Explain the concept of prototyping

Describe the various data-gathering and

Define the terms “system,” “analysis,” and “design”

List and describe the phases of the systems development life cycle

Describe a selection of systems design tools

Explain the role of the maintenance task in the systems development life cycle

Objectives Describe the principal functions of the systems analyst analysis tools Explain the concept of prototyping
Systems Analysis Design System – an organized set of related components established to accomplish a certain
Systems
Analysis
Design
System – an organized set of related components
established to accomplish a certain task
Computer system – a system that has a computer as one of
its components
Analysis - Studying an existing system to determine
how it works and how it meets users’ needs
Typically happens as a result of some impetus for change,
combined with the authority to make the change

Design - The process of developing a plan for an improved system, based on the result of the systems analysis

Systems Analysis Design System – an organized set of related components established to accomplish a certain
Who Participates? Project Team
Who Participates?
Project
Team
Who Participates? Project Team
Systems Analysis  Client – the person or organization contracting to have the work done
Systems Analysis
Client – the person or organization
contracting to have the work done

Key Individuals Involved in

Systems analyst performs analysis and design

May perform some programming as well

User the people who will have contact with the system

Systems Analysis  Client – the person or organization contracting to have the work done Key
Systems Analyst: A Change Agent The catalyst or persuader who overcomes the reluctance to change within
Systems Analyst: A Change Agent
The catalyst or persuader who overcomes the
reluctance to change within an organization
Systems analyst can function as change agent,
but it works best if it is someone inside the
organization
What it takes:
Coordination of many people, tasks, and schedules
Communication skills, both oral and written
Planning and design (an analytical mind)
Self-discipline and self-direction
Good organizational skills
Creativity

Systems Analyst: A Change Agent The catalyst or persuader who overcomes the reluctance to change within

The ability to work without tangible results

Cycle (SDLC) Phases  Preliminary Investigation   Analysis   Design  Development  
Cycle (SDLC)
Phases
Preliminary Investigation
Analysis
Design
Development
(Documentation)

Implementation

Cycle (SDLC) Phases  Preliminary Investigation   Analysis   Design  Development  

System Development Life

Organized set of activities that guides

those involved through the development of an information system.

Ongoing activities

Project management

Overall Documentation

Information gathering

Systems Development Life Cycle •Documentation Preliminary Investigation Or feasability study •Problem Definition Implementation •Training •Conversion •Evaluation
Systems Development Life Cycle
•Documentation
Preliminary Investigation
Or feasability study
•Problem Definition
Implementation
•Training
•Conversion
•Evaluation
•Maintenance
Ongoing Activities
•Project Management
•Documentation
•Information Gathering.
Development
and testing.
•Scheduling
Systems Development Life Cycle •Documentation Preliminary Investigation Or feasability study •Problem Definition Implementation •Training •Conversion •Evaluation

Programming

Systems Development Life Cycle •Documentation Preliminary Investigation Or feasability study •Problem Definition Implementation •Training •Conversion •Evaluation
Systems Development Life Cycle •Documentation Preliminary Investigation Or feasability study •Problem Definition Implementation •Training •Conversion •Evaluation

Design Preliminary design Detail design

Systems Development Life Cycle •Documentation Preliminary Investigation Or feasability study •Problem Definition Implementation •Training •Conversion •Evaluation

Analysis Gather data Analyze data Develop requirements

System Development Guidelines Use a structured approach Involve the Users
System Development
Guidelines
Use a structured approach
Involve the Users
System Development Guidelines Use a structured approach Involve the Users Develop Standards

Develop Standards

System Development Guidelines Use a structured approach Involve the Users Develop Standards
Ongoing Activity: Project Management Scope (goal, objectives, expectations) Activities and Deliverables to be completed Time estimates
Ongoing Activity: Project Management
Scope (goal, objectives, expectations)
Activities and Deliverables to be completed
Time estimates
Project Plan
Cost estimates
Order activities occur
Gantt Chart
Activities performed concurrently

The process of planning, scheduling, and controlling activities during the SDLC

Ongoing Activity: Project Management Scope (goal, objectives, expectations) Activities and Deliverables to be completed Time estimates
continuously reevaluated)  Operational feasibility  Schedule feasibility  Technical feasibility
continuously reevaluated)
Operational feasibility
Schedule feasibility
Technical feasibility
continuously reevaluated)  Operational feasibility  Schedule feasibility  Technical feasibility Ongoing Activity: Feasibility Assessment Measure

Ongoing Activity: Feasibility Assessment

Measure of how suitable the development of a system will be in the organization. (Initially occurs in the Preliminary Investigation phase but needs to be

  • Economic or cost/benefit feasibility

Ongoing Activity: Documentation Compilation and summarization of data and information  Reports Diagrams  Programs 
Ongoing Activity: Documentation
Compilation and summarization of data
and information
Reports
Diagrams
Programs
Other deliverables generated during SDLC
Project Notebook
Project Dictionary/Repository
Ongoing Activity: Documentation Compilation and summarization of data and information  Reports Diagrams  Programs 
Review current Interview system  documentation Observe sessions Send Questionnaires Research
Review current
Interview
system
documentation
Observe
sessions
Send
Questionnaires
Research

Ongoing Activity: Data & Info Gathering

Begins in Analysis Phase, but is continually updated

Structured/Unstructured

Conduct JAD (joint

application design)

Review current Interview system  documentation Observe sessions Send Questionnaires Research Ongoing Activity: Data & Info
whether the project should be pursued •Involves working with the users
whether the project should be pursued
•Involves working with the users

Phase 1: Preliminary Investigation

A brief study of the problem to determine •Also called the feasibility study or system survey
A brief study of the problem to determine
•Also called the feasibility study or system
survey
•Organization chart – a hierarchical drawing
showing the organization’s management
whether the project should be pursued •Involves working with the users Phase 1: Preliminary Investigation A
Feasibility Study Technical feasibility Economic feasibility Operational feasibility  are the current work practices and procedures
Feasibility Study
Technical feasibility
Economic feasibility
Operational feasibility
are the current work practices and procedures
adequate to support the new system?
Legal feasibility
Schedule feasibility
how long will the system take to develop, or can it
be done in a desired time-frame?
Feasibility Study Technical feasibility Economic feasibility Operational feasibility  are the current work practices and procedures
Defining the Problem Two points that must be agreed upon  The nature of the problem
Defining the Problem
Two points that must be
agreed upon
The nature of the problem
The scope (boundaries) of
the problem
Agreeing on the problem
helps define the
objectives of the system
Defining the Problem Two points that must be agreed upon  The nature of the problem
Project Request
Project
Request
Project Request
Feasibility Assessment
Feasibility
Assessment
Feasibility Assessment
Feasibility Assessment (continued)
Feasibility
Assessment
(continued)
Feasibility Assessment (continued)
Phase 2: Analysis Understand the existing system Two tasks are involved  Data gathering  Data
Phase 2: Analysis
Understand the existing system
Two tasks are involved
Data gathering
Data analysis
Phase 2: Analysis Understand the existing system Two tasks are involved  Data gathering  Data
Data Gathering A number of techniques can be used  Interviews with users and managers 
Data Gathering
A number of techniques can be used
Interviews with users and managers
Sending out questionnaires
Observation of current procedures

Structured interview includes only questions that have been written out in advance

Unstructured interview interviewer has a general goal but few, if any questions prepared

Examining current business and systems documents and output

may include current order documents, computer systems procedures and reports used by operations and senior management

by spending time in various departments; a time and motion study can show where procedures could be more efficient, or to detect bottlenecks

Data Gathering A number of techniques can be used  Interviews with users and managers 
Data Analysis Typical tools for data analysis  Entity Relationship diagram  Data flow diagram 
Data Analysis
Typical tools for data analysis
Entity Relationship diagram
Data flow diagram
Decision table/Decision Tree
Written report

Report to management/ customer/ client

Data Analysis Typical tools for data analysis  Entity Relationship diagram  Data flow diagram 
Entity-Relationship Diagrams (ERD) Tool to graphically represent the associations between entities in the project Noun Verb
Entity-Relationship Diagrams
(ERD)
Tool to graphically represent the associations
between entities in the project
Noun
Verb
Entity-Relationship Diagrams (ERD) Tool to graphically represent the associations between entities in the project Noun Verb
Tool to graphically represent the flow of data in a system Data Store
Tool to graphically represent the
flow of data in a system
Data Store
Tool to graphically represent the flow of data in a system Data Store Data Flow Diagrams

Data Flow Diagrams (DFD)

Tool to graphically represent the flow of data in a system Data Store Data Flow Diagrams
Decision
Decision

Tree

Decision

Table

Decision Tree Decision Table
System Requirements & recommendations do  Highlight problems with current system  The design of the
System Requirements
& recommendations
do
Highlight problems with current system
The design of the new system will be based on these
requirements
Analyst and management must come to a clear
agreement on requirements
List of possible solutions
Hardware/software recommendations
System Requirements & recommendations do  Highlight problems with current system  The design of the

A detailed list of things the system must be able to

System Requirements & recommendations do  Highlight problems with current system  The design of the
Report to Management current system Makes a recommendation on what course to take next
Report to Management
current system
Makes a recommendation on what
course to take next

Summarizes the problems found in the

Describes the requirements for the new system, including a cost analysis

Report to Management current system Makes a recommendation on what course to take next Summarizes the
The hardware platform  which type of computer,  network capabilities, input, storage and output devices
The hardware platform
which type of computer,
network capabilities, input,
storage and output devices
computer system
The software
programming language,
application
package or database
The outputs
Conversion plan
report layouts and screen
designs
implemented
The inputs
Documentation
documents, screen layouts,
validation procedures
User
Technical

The user interface

Pre-Design considerations

how users will interact with the

The modular design

of each program in the

The test plan and test data

how the new system is to be

The hardware platform  which type of computer,  network capabilities, input, storage and output devices
Phase 3: Design Divided into two subphases  Preliminary design Several key decisions must be made
Phase 3: Design
Divided into two subphases
Preliminary design
Several key decisions must be made
Detail design specifications
Output requirements
Input requirements
Files and databases
System processing
System controls and backups

The new system is actually planned

Phase 3: Design Divided into two subphases  Preliminary design Several key decisions must be made
Build or Buy? Custom Software  Developed by user  Horizontal  Developed at user Many
Build or Buy?
Custom Software
Developed by user
Horizontal
Developed at user
Many org types
request by outside
Vertical
vendor
Industry specific
Build or Buy? Custom Software  Developed by user  Horizontal  Developed at user Many

Packaged Software

Build or Buy? Custom Software  Developed by user  Horizontal  Developed at user Many
Technical specifications Solicit vendor proposals Test & evaluate  Benchmark Test Make a decision
Technical specifications
Solicit vendor proposals
Test & evaluate
Benchmark Test
Make a decision

Acquire Hardware/Software

Technical specifications Solicit vendor proposals Test & evaluate  Benchmark Test Make a decision Acquire Hardware/Software
Technical specifications Solicit vendor proposals Test & evaluate  Benchmark Test Make a decision Acquire Hardware/Software
Requirements Input Output Things to consider Things to consider  The medium (paper, screen, etc.) of
Requirements
Input
Output
Things to consider
Things to consider
The medium (paper,
screen, etc.) of the
output
The input medium
(captured at the source,
keyed from source
document)
The types of reports
needed and what
data is needed for
The fields needed, how
they are laid out on the
the reports
input screen, etc.
Input validation may be
necessary
Requirements Input Output Things to consider Things to consider  The medium (paper, screen, etc.) of
Input/Output Design Mockup (User) Layout Chart (Programmer)
Input/Output Design
Mockup
(User)
Layout Chart
(Programmer)
Files and Databases Things to consider  How files are organized Sequentially, directly, or by another
Files and Databases
Things to consider
How files are organized
Sequentially, directly, or by another method
The format of the records making up the
data files
Files and Databases Things to consider  How files are organized Sequentially, directly, or by another
Database Design Security
Database Design
Security

Table structure definitions & relationships

Database Design Security Table structure definitions & relationships
Flow Chart Program Design File Comment
Flow Chart
Program Design
File
Comment

System Processing

Flow Chart Program Design File Comment System Processing Hard cop

Hard cop

Flow Chart Program Design File Comment System Processing Hard cop
Phase 4: Development Schedule and monitor the two principal activities  Programming  Testing
Phase 4: Development
Schedule and monitor the two principal
activities
Programming
Testing

There are several project scheduling tools available

Phase 4: Development Schedule and monitor the two principal activities  Programming  Testing There are
Phase 4: Development Schedule and monitor the two principal activities  Programming  Testing There are
Programming Prepare program design specifications Use logic flowcharts and pseudocode to facilitate code development
Programming
Prepare program design specifications
Use logic flowcharts and pseudocode to
facilitate code development
Programming Prepare program design specifications Use logic flowcharts and pseudocode to facilitate code development
Testing Unit testing – verifies that individual program units work  Perform testing with test data
Testing
Unit testing – verifies that individual
program units work
Perform testing with test data
System testing – determines whether all
program units work together as planned
Volume testing – uses real data in large
amounts
Determines whether the system can
handle a large volume of data
Testing Unit testing – verifies that individual program units work  Perform testing with test data
 Training  Equipment conversion  File conversion  System conversion  Auditing  Evaluation 
Training
Equipment conversion
File conversion
System conversion
Auditing
Evaluation
Maintenance

Phase 5: Implementation

Steps involved in starting the new system

 Training  Equipment conversion  File conversion  System conversion  Auditing  Evaluation 
Training  The system will do no better than the people using it  are not
Training
The system will do no better than the
people using it
are not familiar with the system
Hands-on training is best

Teach users how to use the system

Develop user’s manual to aid users who

Training  The system will do no better than the people using it  are not
Training  The system will do no better than the people using it  are not
Equipment Conversion Items to consider  Delivery schedules must be coordinated  Terminals or personal computers
Equipment Conversion
Items to consider
Delivery schedules must be
coordinated
Terminals or personal computers
must be networked
Devices on the system must be
compatible
Equipment Conversion Items to consider  Delivery schedules must be coordinated  Terminals or personal computers
File Conversion 
File Conversion

system

If existing files are manual, they must be

keyed in or scanned into the system

Manual files must be kept current while

data is being input into the new system

If existing files are computer-based, programs must be written to convert the

files into the format needed for the new

File Conversion  system If existing files are manual, they must be keyed in or scanned
System Conversion Four approaches  Direct conversion – the user simply stops using the old system
System Conversion
Four approaches
Direct conversion – the user simply stops using
the old system and starts using the new one
Phased conversion – the system is implemented
one part at a time
Pilot conversion – the entire system is used by a
designated set of users
Parallel conversion – the old and new systems are
both used until users are satisfied the new system
works
System Conversion Four approaches  Direct conversion – the user simply stops using the old system
Conversion Options
Conversion Options
Conversion Options
Auditing back to a source document 
Auditing
back to a source document
Auditing back to a source document  Systems to trace data in the system Very helpful
Auditing back to a source document  Systems to trace data in the system Very helpful

Systems to trace data in the system

Very helpful in tracing security violations

Evaluation Determines how well the system is meeting the original requirements, benefits, and budgets  Evaluation
Evaluation
Determines how well the system is
meeting the original requirements,
benefits, and budgets
Evaluation can be performed by the
analyst and someone from the organization
Evaluation can also be performed by an
independent third party
Evaluation Determines how well the system is meeting the original requirements, benefits, and budgets  Evaluation
Maintenance of the system  Enhancements to the system  Fix bugs in the system as
Maintenance
of the system
Enhancements to the system
Fix bugs in the system as they are
identified
Maintenance of the system  Enhancements to the system  Fix bugs in the system as
Maintenance of the system  Enhancements to the system  Fix bugs in the system as
Maintenance of the system  Enhancements to the system  Fix bugs in the system as

An ongoing activity that lasts the lifetime

Several types of maintenance activities

Terms to Know: Chapter 14 Analysis Outsourcing Benchmark test Parallel conversion Build-or-buy decision Phased conversion CASE
Terms to Know: Chapter 14
Analysis
Outsourcing
Benchmark test
Parallel conversion
Build-or-buy decision
Phased conversion
CASE
Pilot conversion
Cost/benefit analysis
Data dictionary
Data flow diagram
Project dictionary
Decision tree/Decision table
Project plan
Deliverable
Prototype
Design
RFP, RFQ, RFI
Development
Scope
Direct conversion
System
Documentation
System design
Entity-relationship diagram (ERD)
Feasibility Assessment/Study
System testing
Gantt chart
Systems analyst
Joint application development (JAD)
Layout chart Mockup
Layout chart
Mockup

Unit testing

Volume testing

Post-implementation system review

Preliminary investigation

System development life cycle-SDLC

If asked, can you… Describe the principal functions of the systems analyst analysis tools Explain the
If asked, can you…
Describe the principal functions of the
systems analyst
analysis tools
Explain the concept of prototyping

Describe the various data-gathering and

Define the terms “system,” “analysis,” and “design”

List and describe the phases of the systems development life cycle

Describe a selection of systems design tools

Explain the role of the maintenance task in the systems development life cycle

If asked, can you… Describe the principal functions of the systems analyst analysis tools Explain the
Sources Capron; Computers: Tools for An Information Age, 8 th Ed. 2003 Pfaffenberger; Computers in Your
Sources
Capron; Computers: Tools for An
Information Age, 8 th Ed. 2003
Pfaffenberger; Computers in Your
Future 2003
Microsoft Clipart
Sources Capron; Computers: Tools for An Information Age, 8 th Ed. 2003 Pfaffenberger; Computers in Your