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Recap

Physical Properties of Ionic and Covalent


compounds
-Melting and Boiling Point
-Electrical Conductivity
-Solubility in water
Mp and bp Electrical
conductivity
Solubility in
water
Ionic
Compound
High Yes. Only in
molten and
aqueous state.
Yes.
Covalent
Compound
Low Not for all
states.
No.
Recap
Questions:
What is/are the states that ionic
compounds usually exist as at r.t.p (room
temperature and pressure)? What about
covalent molecules?
Can ionic compound exist as other states?
What do you need to do to change state?
How does it happen?
Describe the solid, liquid and
gaseous states of matter
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:
(a)Matter is anything that has mass and
occupies space.

(b)All matter is made up of tiny particles
(atoms, molecules or ions).
Use of the general term 'particle' means the precise nature
of the particles does not have to be specified.

(c)Matters can exist in 3 states: Solid,
Liquid and gas.
These three forms of matter are called the
states of matter.

As shown here, water (liquid) can exist as ice
(solid) or water vapour (gas).
MAKE OBSERVATIONS

Look at the purple spot and orange
spot..
What do you see? Why do you think it behave that way?
Food for thought..
Why do you smell a hamburger from a distance away? What
about perfumes? How are the bees attracted to the flowers?

When you place a small piece of food into boiling water, what
do you observe to it?
The kinetic particle theory is a model
used to explain the properties of
matter.
Kinetic Theory of Matter states that:

(i) All matter is made up of tiny
particles and they exist as atoms,
molecules or ions. (The particles are
attracted to each other by
attractive forces)
(ii) The particles are always in
continuous random motion and hence
possess kinetic energy.
**(The kinetic energy of a particle
increases with temperature and
pressure, the higher the temperature
and pressure, the faster the particles
move. At fixed temperature, lighter
particles move faster than heavier
particles.)

The particles in a substance are of the same
type, in solid, liquid or gaseous state. The
differ only in
their arrangement
how strongly the particles are held
together and
the amount of kinetic energies that they
possess.
Kinetic theory can be used to explain how
solids, liquids and gases differ in movement
and arrangement.
Group Work
(5mins for discussion)
Get into groups of 4. Discuss about
How do molecules of matter behave?
How do the behaviour of particles account
for the property of solid, liquid and
gas?(Each groupll be allocated 1 state)
Selected groups will role play on the
movement of the particles in the particular
state allocated.
Property Solid Liquid Gas
Volume Fixed Fixed Not Fixed
Shape Fixed Not Fixed Not Fixed
Compressibility
Not
compressible
Not
compressibl
e
compressible
Density Very Dense Dense Not dense
Packing and
arrangement
between
particles
Closely
packed in an
orderly
arrangement
Closely
packed in
an
disorderly
arrangement
Far apart in
random
arrangement.
Property Solid Liquid Gas
Forces of
Attraction
between
particles
Very strong
forces of
attraction
between
particles
Strong forces
of attraction
between
particles
Negligible
forces of
attraction
between
particles
Motion of
particles
Vibrate about
a fixed
position
Slide and roll
pass each
other
Move about
randomly at
high speed
Energy of
particles
Least energy Most energy
Property Solid Liquid Gas
Diagrammatic
Representation
solid
liquid
gas
http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/states_of_matter/
http://www.educationusingpowerpoint.org.uk/index.html?ks3science.html~mainFrame
Arrangement and movement
of particles
Properties of solids
The particles are closely
packed together, with
little empty space between
them.
Solids have
and.
The particles are in an
orderly arrangement.
Solid crystals have flat faces,
and sharp
points
high densities
cannot be
compressed
straight edges
The particles are held
together by strong forces
of attraction between
them, in fixed positions.
Solids have shapes
and be
compressed.
The particles can only
vibrate about their fixed
positions.
Arrangement and
movement of particles
Properties of solids
fixed
cannot
Arrangement and movement
of particles
Properties of Liquids
The particles are closely
packed together (but slightly
further apart than those in
solid), with little empty space
between them.
Liquids have
densities and be
compressed.
The particles are in a
disorderly arrangement.
Liquids have fixed shapes.
moderately high
cannot
no
Arrangement and
movement of particles
Properties of Liquids
The particles are held
together by strong forces
of attraction between
them (but slightly weaker
than the forces in a solid)
Liquids be
compressed.
The particles can move
past one another and
throughout the liquid.
Liquids can and
take the of their
containers.
cannot
flow
shape
Arrangement and
movement of particles
Properties of Gas
The particles are far
apart, with a lot of empty
space between them.
Gases have densities
and can be
compressed.
The particles are in a
random arrangement.
Gases have shapes.
low
easily
no
Arrangement and
movement of particles
Properties of Gas
There are no (negligible)
forces of attraction
between the particles.
Gases can be
compressed, hence
volume.
The particles are free to
move randomly in all
directions, at high speed.
Gases have no
shapes and take the
of their containers.
easily
no definite
definite
shape
What we covered for today:
Kinetic Particle Theory
Says that all matter consists of
many, very small particles.
The particles are constantly moving
or in a continual state of motion.
The particles might be atoms,
molecules or ions.
Solids
Particles close together
In an orderly arrangement
Solids.
Particles vibrate only about fixed positions.
These vibrations increase as temperature increases.
The degree to which the particles move is determined by
the amount of energy they have and their relationship to
other particles.
The particles have less energy than particles in liquids and
gases.
Strong forces between particles.
Liquids.
Particles close together
In a disorderly arrangement
Liquids
Particles vibrate and move throughout the liquid.
Particles in liquids have more energy than solids
but less energy than gases.
Strong forces between particles.
Gas.
Particles are arranged far apart and in random
movement.
Particles vibrate and move anywhere.
Particles in gases have more energy than solids and
liquids.
No forces between particles.
Solids Liquids Gas
SOLID
LIQUID
GAS
Particles close
together
In an orderly
arrangement
Particles close
together
In a disorderly
arrangement
Particles far
apart
In a random
arrangement
Particles
arrangement
Particles
vibration
About fixed
positions
Vibrate about
and move
through liquid
Vibrate about
and move
anywhere
Solids Liquids Gas
SOLID
LIQUID
GAS
Forces
between
particles
Strong
forces
Strong
forces

No forces

Energy in
particles
Least
energy
Energy
Most
energy
Solid? Liquid? Gas?
What determines the state of matter?
SOLID
LIQUID
GAS
Solid? Liquid? Gas?
States of the matter can be
inter-converted without
changing its composition.
SOLID
LIQUID
GAS
Explain their inter-conversion of
states in terms of the kinetic
particle theory.
Explain the inter-conversion of
states in terms of the energy
changes involved.
In the next lesson, you will be learning on:
Change of State
Melting
Boiling &
Evaporation
Condensation
Freezing
Sublimation
condensation
Changes of State and the
Kinetic Particle Theory
Melting, freezing, boiling and condensation
are examples of changes of state.