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Animation

Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives

Raster Methods for Computer Animation Raster Methods for Computer Animation

Design of Animation Sequences Design of Animation Sequences

Traditional Animation Techniques Traditional Animation Techniques

General Computer-Animation Functions General Computer-Animation Functions

Key-Frame Systems Key-Frame Systems

Morphing Morphing

Simulating Accelerations Simulating Accelerations

Motion Specification Motion Specification

Articulated Figure Animation Articulated Figure Animation

eriodic Motions eriodic Motions

Animation in !penG" Animation in !penG"


Animation?
50 years ago Walt Disney created animated objects 50 years ago Walt Disney created animated objects
such as Mickey Mouse. such as Mickey Mouse.
Today the process used to create animated objects has Today the process used to create animated objects has
had to change. had to change.
In act! it continues to change. In act! it continues to change.
History of animation
Disney#s age Disney#s age
$alt Disney $alt Disney is is the o%erpo&ering the o%erpo&ering
force in the history of force in the history of
animation animation
Disney#s inno%ation' Disney#s inno%ation'

the use of a storyboard to review the story,


the use of pencil sketches to review motion,
the multi-plane camera stand
And the use of sound and color in
animation
(although not the first to use color).
Animation
The "ord #animation$ is a orm o #animate!$ "hich means The "ord #animation$ is a orm o #animate!$ "hich means
to bring to lie. to bring to lie.
Thus "hen a multimedia de%eloper "ants to bring an Thus "hen a multimedia de%eloper "ants to bring an
image to lie! animation is used. image to lie! animation is used.
&or e'ample! a spinning globe is it better to (lm the &or e'ample! a spinning globe is it better to (lm the
motion on %ideo! or is animation a better solution. motion on %ideo! or is animation a better solution.
The )o"er o Motion
*isual e+ects such as "ipes! ades!
*isual e+ects such as "ipes! ades!
,ooms! and dissol%es are a%ailable in
,ooms! and dissol%es are a%ailable in
most authoring packages.
most authoring packages.
-ut animation is more than "ipes!
-ut animation is more than "ipes!
ades! ,ooms! and dissol%es.
ades! ,ooms! and dissol%es.
.ntil /uick Time and A*I motion %ideo
.ntil /uick Time and A*I motion %ideo
became more common place
became more common place
animations "ere the primary source
animations "ere the primary source
o dynamic action in multimedia.
o dynamic action in multimedia.
7
Computer Animation

Animation ()S Simulation Animation ()S Simulation

Animation Animation

Make objects change over Make objects change over


time according to scripted time according to scripted
actions actions

Simulation Simulation

Predict how objects change Predict how objects change


over time according to over time according to
physical laws physical laws
Computer Animation
Computer Animation

Any time sequence of Any time sequence of


%isual changes in a %isual changes in a
picture picture
Computer Animation
Computer Animation

Real-time animation
Real-time animation

Each stage of the sequence is viewed as it is Each stage of the sequence is viewed as it is
created created

Useful in simulators Useful in simulators

Frame-*y-frame animation
Frame-*y-frame animation

Each frame of the motion is separately Each frame of the motion is separately
generated and stored generated and stored

Used for movies Used for movies


10
Keyframe Animation

Define Character oses at Specific Time Steps Define Character oses at Specific Time Steps
Called +Keyframes, Called +Keyframes,
11
Keyframe Animation

-nterpolate (aria*les Descri*ing Keyframes to -nterpolate (aria*les Descri*ing Keyframes to


Determine oses for Character in *et&een Determine oses for Character in *et&een
Raster Methods for
Raster Methods for
Computer Animation
Computer Animation

Dou*le *uffering' &hile the screen


Dou*le *uffering' &hile the screen
is *eing refreshed from one *uffer.
is *eing refreshed from one *uffer.
&e construct the scene in the other
&e construct the scene in the other
*uffer
*uffer

Raster operations
Raster operations

lock transfers of rectangular arrays of pi!el lock transfers of rectangular arrays of pi!el
values values

Often used in games Often used in games


Design of Animation
Design of Animation
Sequences
Sequences

Story*oard layout Story*oard layout

"ough sketches "ough sketches

# list of basic ideas for the action # list of basic ideas for the action

!*/ect definitions !*/ect definitions

Each participant in the action Each participant in the action

asic shapes asic shapes

Movements to be performed by each character and Movements to be performed by each character and
object object

Key-frame specifications Key-frame specifications

$etailed drawing of the scene at a certain time in the $etailed drawing of the scene at a certain time in the
animation sequence animation sequence

Generation of in-*et&een frames Generation of in-*et&een frames

%ntermediate frames between the key frames %ntermediate frames between the key frames
Traditional Animation
Traditional Animation
Techniques
Techniques

Squash and stretch Squash and stretch

&o simulate acceleration &o simulate acceleration


Traditional Animation
Traditional Animation
Techniques
Techniques

Timing Timing

'low objects are simulated with more frames( 'low objects are simulated with more frames(
while faster moving objects are displayed with while faster moving objects are displayed with
fewer frames fewer frames
Traditional Animation
Traditional Animation
Techniques
Techniques

0mphasi1ing o*/ect mo%ements 0mphasi1ing o*/ect mo%ements

#nticipation of coming motion ) a cartoon #nticipation of coming motion ) a cartoon


character can lean forward before running character can lean forward before running

*ollow+through actions ) a hat can ,y o- a *ollow+through actions ) a hat can ,y o- a


character that is stopped abruptly character that is stopped abruptly

'taging ) focusing on an important part of a 'taging ) focusing on an important part of a


scene scene
Main 12 rinciples
./ ./'quash and stretch 'quash and stretch
0/ 0/&iming &iming
1/ 1/#nticipation #nticipation
2/ 2/'taging 'taging
3 4 5/ 3 4 5/'traight 'traight
#head#ction #head#ction4 4
Pose to Pose Pose to Pose
5/ 5/*ollow &hrough *ollow &hrough4 4
Overlapping #ction Overlapping #ction
6/ 6/'low %n 'low %n 4 4 'low Out 'low Out
7/ 7/#rcs #rcs
8/ 8/'econdary #ction 'econdary #ction
.9/ .9/E!aggeration E!aggeration
../ ../'olid $rawing 'olid $rawing
:same or di-erent as :same or di-erent as
;eight< ;eight<
.0/ .0/#ppeal #ppeal
Squash and Stretch
$hen an o*/ect mo%es. its mo%ement indicates the $hen an o*/ect mo%es. its mo%ement indicates the
rigidity of the o*/ect rigidity of the o*/ect
Timing or Speed of
Action
defines ho& &ell the idea *ehind the action &ill defines ho& &ell the idea *ehind the action &ill
read to an audience2 -t reflects the &iehgt and read to an audience2 -t reflects the &iehgt and
si1e of an o*/ect si1e of an o*/ect
more dra&ings *et&een poses slo& and smooth the more dra&ings *et&een poses slo& and smooth the
action action
Antisipation
-s a preparation for the action. the action proper -s a preparation for the action. the action proper
and the termination of the action2 and the termination of the action2
Straight Ahead Action
and ose to ose
Straight ahead Action Straight ahead Action
y you can lose si1e. %olume. ou can lose si1e. %olume.
and proportions and proportions
Motion has Motion has spontaneity and spontaneity and
freshness freshness
ose to pose ose to pose
more planned out and more planned out and
charted &ith 3ey dra&ings charted &ith 3ey dra&ings
done at inter%als done at inter%als
throughout the scene2 throughout the scene2
S Si1e. %olumes. and i1e. %olumes. and
proportions are controlled proportions are controlled2 2
!ollo" Through
and #$erlapping Action
Follo& Through Follo& Through
i is the termination of s the termination of
an action an action
n nothing stops all at othing stops all at
once2 once2
!%erlapping Action !%erlapping Action
maintains a continual maintains a continual
flo& *et&een &hole flo& *et&een &hole
phrases of actions phrases of actions
ma3es o*/ects seem ma3es o*/ects seem
more natural2 more natural2
Slo"ing in%out or &ases
D Deals &ith the spacing of the in*et&een eals &ith the spacing of the in*et&een
dra&ings *et&een the e4treme poses2 dra&ings *et&een the e4treme poses2
Slo&-ins and slo&-outs soften the action. Slo&-ins and slo&-outs soften the action.
ma3ing it more life-li3e2 ma3ing it more life-li3e2
Arcs
All actions All actions follo& an arc or slightly circular path follo& an arc or slightly circular path
Thin3 of natural mo%ements in the terms of a Thin3 of natural mo%ements in the terms of a
pendulum s&inging pendulum s&inging
-n Computer Animation. motion is usually represented -n Computer Animation. motion is usually represented
in a timeline %ie& using splines5arcs62 in a timeline %ie& using splines5arcs62
The method used for calculating interpolated The method used for calculating interpolated
3eyframe %alues determines the characteristic of 3eyframe %alues determines the characteristic of
the arc5motion62 the arc5motion62
Secondary Action
A Adds to and enriches the main action and dds to and enriches the main action and
adds more dimension to the character adds more dimension to the character
animation animation
- -mportant in mportant in raising the raising the interest and interest and
adding a realistic comple4ity to the adding a realistic comple4ity to the
animation animation
&'aggeration
" "i3e a caricature of facial features. e4pressions. i3e a caricature of facial features. e4pressions.
poses. attitudes and actions poses. attitudes and actions
-f -f he is angry. ma3e him furious he is angry. ma3e him furious
Solid Dra"ing
T Transform form. &eight. %olume solidity ransform form. &eight. %olume solidity
into color and mo%ement gi%ing the into color and mo%ement gi%ing the
characters the illusion of three-and four- characters the illusion of three-and four-
dimensional life2 dimensional life2
7D 7D is mo%ement in space2 is mo%ement in space2
8 8
th th
D D is mo%ement in time2 is mo%ement in time2
Appeal
"i%e "i%e actor actor#s #s charisma charisma 9 9
appeal appeal of of animated character animated character
To create To create appealing pose a%oid :t&ins, appealing pose a%oid :t&ins,
*
(eneral Computer)
(eneral Computer)
Animation !unctions
Animation !unctions

Managing o*/ect motions Managing o*/ect motions

Generating %ie&s of o*/ects Generating %ie&s of o*/ects

roducing camera motions roducing camera motions

Generating in-*et&een frames Generating in-*et&een frames


Key)!rame Systems
Key)!rame Systems

Generate in-*et&een frames from the user-specified Generate in-*et&een frames from the user-specified
3ey frames 5t&o or more6 3ey frames 5t&o or more6

Comple4 scenes separated into indi%idual Comple4 scenes separated into indi%idual
components called components called cels cels
0el Animation
Made amous by Disney Made amous by Disney
12 rames per second thereore a minute may 12 rames per second thereore a minute may
re3uire as many as 4!220 separate rames. re3uire as many as 4!220 separate rames.
0el animation5 is based on changes that occur 0el animation5 is based on changes that occur
rom one rame to the ne't. rom one rame to the ne't.
0el stands or celluloid "hich is a clear sheet 0el stands or celluloid "hich is a clear sheet
"ith images dra"n on them. "ith images dra"n on them.
The celluloid images are place on a background The celluloid images are place on a background
that is usually stationary. that is usually stationary.
The background remain ('ed as the images The background remain ('ed as the images
changes. changes.
)ath Animation
Mo%es an object along a predetermined path on the Mo%es an object along a predetermined path on the
screen screen
The path can be a straight line or ha%e a number o The path can be a straight line or ha%e a number o
cur%es. cur%es.
6tarts "ith 6tarts "ith keyframes keyframes 7the (rst and last rame o an 7the (rst and last rame o an
action8. action8.
The series o rames in bet"een the The series o rames in bet"een the keyframes keyframes are are
dra"n in a process called dra"n in a process called tweening tweening. .
T"eening T"eening re3uires calculating the number o rames re3uires calculating the number o rames
bet"een bet"een keyrames keyrames and the path the action takes! and the path the action takes!
and then actually takes! and then sketches a and then actually takes! and then sketches a
series o progressi%ely di+erent outlines. series o progressi%ely di+erent outlines.
#ld animation cliche
*An animator is an actor
"ith a pencil*
:Animators should focus on the acting222ma3e the :Animators should focus on the acting222ma3e the
characters thin3 and act222start &ith the *ody characters thin3 and act222start &ith the *ody
first. ne4t focus on the eyes. and last focus on first. ne4t focus on the eyes. and last focus on
the mouth2 $hen re%ie&ing reels &e loo3 at the the mouth2 $hen re%ie&ing reels &e loo3 at the
acting first2: acting first2:
John Lasseter, November 4, 1996 John Lasseter, November 4, 1996
the chief creative officer the chief creative officer
at Pixar at Pixar Animation Studios Animation Studios and and
alt !isne" #eature Animation alt !isne" #eature Animation
Acting
Goog acting 9 Goog acting 9 ;elie%a*le acting ;elie%a*le acting
;elie%a*le acting means that the audience feels that ;elie%a*le acting means that the audience feels that
the character<s actions are the result of its o&n the character<s actions are the result of its o&n
inner moti%es inner moti%es2 2
+elie$a,le acting
Feel Feel
=feel= your character when you create =feel= your character when you create
animation animation/ /
Thin3 Thin3
l look for opportunities to show thinking ook for opportunities to show thinking
process( which leads to decision and action process( which leads to decision and action/ /
+elie$a,le acting
React
React
Every action must have a reason/ Make sure you Every action must have a reason/ Make sure you
know what your character is reacting to( and know what your character is reacting to( and
that the reaction is reasonable that the reaction is reasonable/ /
Consistency
Consistency
"etain a consistent attitude to your character>s "etain a consistent attitude to your character>s
reactions/ # shy character :small( timid reactions/ # shy character :small( timid
movements< that une!pectedly acts in an movements< that une!pectedly acts in an
e!troverted way with no clear reason( will su-er e!troverted way with no clear reason( will su-er
great damage to its credibility/ great damage to its credibility/
+elie$a,le acting
ersonality
ersonality
&he character>s personality dictates its &he character>s personality dictates its
reactions reactions( ( its acting/ &ry to get to know your its acting/ &ry to get to know your
character the way you know a family member character the way you know a family member
or someone you work with/ ;hat makes him or someone you work with/ ;hat makes him
tick? ;hat is he afraid of? ;hat are his tick? ;hat is he afraid of? ;hat are his
problems? problems?
Mood
Mood
Mood resembles personality + it( too( dictates Mood resembles personality + it( too( dictates
the character>s reactions + but unlike the character>s reactions + but unlike
personality( its e-ect is temporary/ personality( its e-ect is temporary/
Morphing
Morphing

Transformation of o*/ect shapes from one to Transformation of o*/ect shapes from one to
another another
Morphing
Morphing

Transforming a line segment Transforming a line segment


added
point
key frame k
key frame k+1 halfway frame
Morphing
Morphing

Transforming a triangle into a Transforming a triangle into a


quadrilateral quadrilateral
added
point
key frame k
key frame k+1
halfway frame
Motion Speci-cation
Motion Speci-cation

Direct specification of geometric


Direct specification of geometric
transformation 5transformation matri46
transformation 5transformation matri46

ouncing ball ouncing ball@ @


Articulated !igure
Articulated !igure
Animation
Animation

Articulated figure' hierarchical structure Articulated figure' hierarchical structure


composed of a set of rigid lin3s that are composed of a set of rigid lin3s that are
connected at rotary /oints connected at rotary /oints

;asic technique for animating people and ;asic technique for animating people and
animals animals
eriodic Motions
eriodic Motions

=a%e to *e sampled frequently enough 5>yquist =a%e to *e sampled frequently enough 5>yquist
frequency6 frequency6
Animation and &rame
9ates
T* %ideo builds :0 entire rames or pictures T* %ideo builds :0 entire rames or pictures
e%ery second. e%ery second.
Mo%ies are shot at a shutter rate o 12 rames Mo%ies are shot at a shutter rate o 12 rames
per second! but using projections tricks the per second! but using projections tricks the
;icker is increased to 2<. ;icker is increased to 2<.
=n some projectors each rame is sho"n : =n some projectors each rame is sho"n :
times beore the ne't rame! or a total o >1 times beore the ne't rame! or a total o >1
;ickers per second "hich helps eliminate the ;ickers per second "hich helps eliminate the
;icker e+ect. ;icker e+ect.
0el Animation ? plays at 12 rames per 0el Animation ? plays at 12 rames per
second. second.
Animation Techni3ues
0omputers ha%e taken a great deal
0omputers ha%e taken a great deal
o hand"ork out o the animation
o hand"ork out o the animation
and rendering process.
and rendering process.
And commercial (lms such as
And commercial (lms such as
Jurassic Park, Beauty and the
Jurassic Park, Beauty and the
Beast, Toy Story
Beast, Toy Story
! and
! and
Shrek
Shrek
ha%e
ha%e
utili,ed the po"er o the
utili,ed the po"er o the
computers.
computers.
Animation in #pen(.
Animation in #pen(.

Dou*le *uffering'
Dou*le *uffering'
glut-nitDisplayMode5G"?T@D!?;"06A glut-nitDisplayMode5G"?T@D!?;"06A

S&apping *uffers'
S&apping *uffers'
glutS&ap;uffers56A glutS&ap;uffers56A

Continuous animation'
Continuous animation'
glut-dleFunc5animationFcn6A glut-dleFunc5animationFcn6A
/D animation
/D animation
7D computer graphics 7D computer graphics is a is a three- three-
dimensional dimensional representation of representation of
geometric geometric data is data is stored in stored in the the
computer computer for the purposes of for the purposes of
p performing erforming calculations calculations
and rendering BD images2 and rendering BD images2

3D computer graphics rely on many of the same
algorithms as D computer graphics.
rinciples for /D
The original
The original
principles are
principles are
still
still
rele%ant
rele%ant
today
today
C
C
an *e applied to
an *e applied to
almost any type
almost any type
of animation
of animation
.
.
including 7D2
including 7D2

But, some of these principles require updates.

Few new additional principles are also needed


2D principles for /D
Apply in the same &ay Apply in the same &ay
Timing Timing
Anticipation Anticipation
Staging Staging
Follo& trough and Follo& trough and
o%erlap o%erlap
04aggeration 04aggeration
Secondary action Secondary action
>eed to *e updated >eed to *e updated
SquashCStretch SquashCStretch
Slo& inCSlo& out Slo& inCSlo& out
Arcs Arcs
Straight ahead Straight ahead
actionC pose to pose actionC pose to pose
Appeal Appeal
0pdated principles
7D SquashCStretch 7D SquashCStretch
'cale and "otate transformation is used 'cale and "otate transformation is used
% %mplemented with a variety of techniques@ mplemented with a variety of techniques@
skin and muscle(
springs(
direct mesh manipulation and
morphing/
0pdated principles
Slo& inCSlo& out Slo& inCSlo& out
%n 1$ animation the inbetweening is done %n 1$ animation the inbetweening is done
automatically using splines interpolation/ automatically using splines interpolation/
'low in and slow out is achieved by adjusting 'low in and slow out is achieved by adjusting
the tension( direction or bias( and continuity of the tension( direction or bias( and continuity of
the splines/ the splines/
*
0pdated principles
Arcs Arcs
& &he path of action from one e!treme to another he path of action from one e!treme to another
is controlled by the same spline that controls is controlled by the same spline that controls
the slow in and out of the inbetween values/ the slow in and out of the inbetween values/
&his simplif &his simplifies ies computing the inbetweens computing the inbetweens/ /
&he method used for calculating interpolated &he method used for calculating interpolated
keyframe values determines the characteristic keyframe values determines the characteristic
of the arc:motion</ of the arc:motion</
*
* http!!home.comcast.net!"harrymott!principles#$7.html
0pdated principles
Appeal Appeal
Aomple!ity and consistency of motion are two Aomple!ity and consistency of motion are two
elements of character appeal that can be elements of character appeal that can be
easily developed with easily developed with 1$ 1$ computer animation/ computer animation/
;riting down the ways in which the character ;riting down the ways in which the character
moves( how heBshe reacts to di-erent moves( how heBshe reacts to di-erent
situations( and how heBshe relates to other situations( and how heBshe relates to other
characters can help deCne the main characters can help deCne the main
characteristics of the characterDs personality characteristics of the characterDs personality/ /
1e" principles for /D
( (isual styling isual styling
; ;lending cartoon physics &ith real &orld physics lending cartoon physics &ith real &orld physics
? ?sing cinematography sing cinematography
M Mastering facial animation astering facial animation
1e" principles for /D
( (isual styling isual styling
m means more than just how things are supposed eans more than just how things are supposed
to look/ to look/
it it has a signiCcant impact on rendering( on has a signiCcant impact on rendering( on
animation techniques( and overall production animation techniques( and overall production
comple!ity/ comple!ity/
1e" principles for /D
; ;lending cartoon physics &ith real &orld physics lending cartoon physics &ith real &orld physics
i it is possible today to t is possible today to ,lend motion ,lend motion from from
di-erent sources di-erent sources
necessary to deCne clear guidelines for a variety necessary to deCne clear guidelines for a variety
of motionBanimation styles of motionBanimation styles@ @
including cartoon physics(
realistic cartoon(
realistic human motion
rotoscoping
1e" principles for /D
? ?sing cinematography sing cinematography
a crucial component of our animation a crucial component of our animation due to due to
full camera control available@ full camera control available@
positions
movement
not just an afterthought not just an afterthought
1e" principles for /D
M Mastering facial animation astering facial animation
more facial animation control than ever before more facial animation control than ever before@ @
Even the subtle motion of eyelids and
eyeballs/
e establish stablish the level of facial control and the level of facial control and
techniques techniques
b build a catalog of facial morph targets or blend uild a catalog of facial morph targets or blend
shapes shapes
reuse reuse of the catalog of the catalog
Challenge of
Animation

Temporal Aliasing Temporal Aliasing

Motion blur Motion blur


Temporal Ailasing

Artifacts due to "imited Temporal Resolution Artifacts due to "imited Temporal Resolution

'trobing 'trobing

*lickering *lickering
Temporal Ailasing

Artifacts due to "imited Temporal Resolution Artifacts due to "imited Temporal Resolution

'trobing 'trobing

*lickering *lickering
Temporal Ailasing

Artifacts due to "imited Temporal Resolution Artifacts due to "imited Temporal Resolution

'trobing 'trobing

*lickering *lickering
Temporal Ailasing

Artifacts due to "imited Temporal Resolution Artifacts due to "imited Temporal Resolution

'trobing 'trobing

*lickering *lickering
Motion +lur

Composite $eighted -mages of Ad/acent Frames Composite $eighted -mages of Ad/acent Frames

"emove parts of signal under+sampled in time "emove parts of signal under+sampled in time