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HEAT TREATMENT

SUBMITED BY- UJJWAL PRAKASH
ROLL NO.- 2012BTECHME031
SUBMITED TO- MONEESH SHARMA
Define
- Heat treatment may be defined as:
An operation or combination of
operations
involving
Heating and cooling of a metal/alloy in
solid state
to obtain desirable

 Improve ductility
 Relieve Internal Stresses
 Refine Grain Size
 Increase Hardness / Tensile Strength without changing
composition / Microstructure
 Increase Hardness / Tensile Strength with change in
composition (Case Hardening)
 Improve Machine.
 Alteration in Magnetic Properties
 Modification of electrical conductivity
 Improve Toughness
 Develop recrystallized structure in cold worked metal
PURPOSE

Heat Treatment Theory

 The various types of heat-treating processes are similar
because they all involve the heating and cooling of metals;
they differ in the heating temperatures and the cooling rates
used and the final results.
 Ferrous metals (metals with iron) are annealing, normalizing,
hardening, and tempering.
 Nonferrous metals can be annealed, but never tempered,
normalized, or case-hardened.
Stages of Heat Treatment
 Soaking
- Internal structural changes take place.
- soaking period depends on the chemical analysis
of the metal and the mass of the part.
 Cooling Stage
- To cool the metal, you can place it in direct
contact with a COOLING MEDIUM composed of a
gas, liquid, solid, or combination of these.

Stages of Heat Treatment
 Soaking Period
Table 1: Soaking period for Hardening,
Annealing and Normalizing Steel.







19
Adapted from
Fig. 10.27,
Callister 6e.
SUMMARY: PROCESSING OPTIONS

Heat Treatment

Bainite
coarse fine
Austenite
Martensite
Moderate cooling (AS)
Isothermal treatment (PCS)
Tempered
Martensite
Pearlite
AS: Alloy Steel
PCS: Plain-carbon Steel
Slow
Cooling
Rapid
Quench
Spheroidite
Re-heat
Re-heat
Slow Cooling
Time in region
indicates amount of
microconstituent!
MEDIUM
COOLING
Cooling Rate, R, is
Change in Temp /
Time °C/s
Fast Cooling
This steel is very
hardenable… 100%
Martensite in ~ 1
minute of cooling!
Heat Treatment
Processes
 Annealing
 Normalizing
 Hardening
 Tempering
Fig.: Shows heating ranges for various types of HT
Process Annealing
Spheroidizing
ANNEALING PROCESS

- Annealing is the opposite of hardening
- Relieve internal stresses, soften them, make them more ductile,
and refine their grain structures.
- Cooling method depend on the metal. For command use are
furnace cooled.
- As the weld cools, internal stresses occur along with hard spots
and brittleness.
- Annealing is just one of the methods for correcting these
problems.


NORMALIZING

- Metal is heated to a higher temperature and
then removed from the furnace for air cooling.
- Remove the internal stresses induced by heat
treating, welding, casting, forging, forming, or
machining.
- low-carbon steels do not require normalizing (no
harmful effects result).
- Normalizing is less expensive then annealing.
- In normalization variation in properties of different
section of a part is achieved.
NORMALIZING
TEMPERING
- To relieve the internal stresses and reduce brittleness, you should
temper the steel after it is hardened.
- Temperature (below its hardening temperature), holding length of
time and cooling (instill air).
- Below the low-critical point
- Strength, hardness and ductility depend on the temperature
(during the tempering process).
- The minimum temperature time for tempering should be 1 hour. If
the part is more than 1 inch thick, increase the time by 1 hour for
each additional inch of thickness.
- Tempering relieves quenching stresses and reduces hardness and
brittleness
 Reduces strength, wear resistance and hardness marginally
but improves ductility and toughness.
 Reheat quenched (MS steel) to any temperature below AC
1


Soak

Cool in air or any desired rate
TEMPERING
High Temperature (500-800
o
C)
• Fe
3
C PPTS as spheroids
• Soft, ductile, machinable
• To toughen steel at the cost of
hardness (spring steels)
• To prevent belated cracking
• Relieve internal stresses produced
by quenching.
Medium Temperature (250-500
o
C)
Low Temperature (100-250
o
C)
TEMPERING
HARDENING
- Heating the steel to a set temperature and then cooling
(quenching) it rapidly by plunging it into oil, water, or brine.
- Hardening increases the hardness and strength of the steel,
but makes it less ductile.
- low-carbon steels do not require because no harmful effects
result.(No transformation for martensitic structure)
- In practice, 0.80 % C is required for maximum hardness.
- When you increase the carbon content beyond 0.80 per cent,
there is no increase in hardness, but there is an increase in
wear resistance.
- This increase in wear resistance is due to the formation of a
substance called hard cementite.





 Hardenability depends on ?
 Composition of Austenite :
-  C  alloy content  ideal diameter  hardenability
-  C  alloy content  Ms  Quench cracking
 Grain size of Austenite :
- Fine grain / high ASTM no has  hardenability
- Coarse grain leads to adverse mechanical properties /
Quench cracking / Higher RA.
 Homogeneity of Austenite :
- Inhomogeneity nucleates pearlite  hardenability
- (Hyperutectoid steels have undissolved carbides as
inhomogeneities).
Hardening
HARDENING
Case Hardening
1) CARBURIZING
- Carbon is added to the surface of low-carbon steel. Two
methods carburizing steel.
i ) Heating the steel in a furnace containing a carbon
monoxide atmosphere.
ii) Steel placed in a container packed with charcoal or some
other carbon-rich material and then heated in a furnace.
- To cool the parts, leave the container in the furnace to cool or
remove it and let it air cool.




Case Hardening
2) CYANIDING
- Fast and efficient. Preheated steel is dipped into a heated
cyanide bath and allowed to soak.
- Upon removal, it is quenched and then rinsed to remove any
residual cyanide.
- This process produces a thin, hard shell that is harder than the
one produced by carburizing (completed in 20 to 30 minutes)
- Cyanide salts are a deadly poison.



Case Hardening
3) NITRIDING
- Methods in that the individual parts have been heat-treated
and tempered before nitriding.
- The parts are then heated in a furnace that has an ammonia
gas atmosphere.
- No quenching is required so there is no worry about warping
or other types of distortion.
- This process is used to case harden items, such as gears,
cylinder sleeves, camshafts and other engine parts, that need
to be wear resistant and operate in high-heat areas.


Case Hardening
4) FLAME HARDENING
- Harden the surface of metal parts. When you use an
oxyacetylene flame, a thin layer at the surface of the part is
rapidly heated to its critical temperature and then
immediately quenched by a combination of a water spray
and the cold base metal.
- This process produces a thin, hardened surface, and at the
same time, the internal parts retain their original properties.


Case Hardening

4) FLAME HARDENING







Thank you