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Prentice Hall

EARTH SCIENCE
EARTH SCIENCE
Tarbuck Lutgens


Chapter
11
11
Mountain Building
actors A!!ecting "e!or#ation
11$1 Rock "e!or#ation
 Factors that influence the strength of a rock
and how it will deform include temperature,
confining pressure, rock type, and time.

Stress is the force per unit area acting on a solid.

Strain is the change in shape or volume of a
body of rock as a result of stress.
- Most crustal deformation occurs along plate
margins.

"e!or#ation is a general term that refers to all
changes in the original shape and/or size of a
rock body.
actors A!!ecting "e!or#ation
11$1 Rock "e!or#ation
 emperature and !ressure

"ocks deform permanently in two ways# brittle
deformation and ductile deformation.
- $uctile deformation is a type of solid state flow
that produces a change in the size and shape
of an ob%ect without fracturing the ob%ect.
- &rittle deformation is the fracturing of an ob%ect
once its strength is e'ceeded.
actors A!!ecting "e!or#ation
11$1 Rock "e!or#ation
 "ock ype
 ime

Forces that are unable to deform rock when first
applied may cause rock to flow if the force is
maintained over a long period of time.

Mineral composition and te'ture of a rock also
greatly affect how it will deform.
T%pes o! Stress
11$1 Rock "e!or#ation
 he three types of stresses that rocks
commonly undergo are tensional stress,
compressional stress, and shear stress.
T%pes o! Stress
olds
11$1 Rock "e!or#ation
 (nticlines

Anticlines are most commonly formed by the
upfolding, or arching, of rock layers.
 )ynclines
 Monoclines

Monoclines are large step-like folds in otherwise
horizontal sedimentary strata.

S%nclines are linear downfolds in sedimentary
strata.

)ynclines are often found in association with
anticlines.
Anticlines and S%nclines
Monoclines
aults
11$1 Rock "e!or#ation
 *ormal Faults

Nor#al !aults occur when the hanging wall block
moves down relative to the footwall block.
 "everse Faults and hrust Faults

Re&erse !aults are faults in which the hanging
wall block moves up relative to the footwall block.

Thrust !aults are reverse faults with dips less
than +,
o
.
olds
11$1 Rock "e!or#ation
 -oints

-oints are fractures along which no appreciable
movement has occurred.
 )trike-)lip Fault

Strike'slip !aults are faults in which the
movement is horizontal and parallel to the trend,
or strike, of the fault surface.
our T%pes o! aults
(oints
olded Mountains
11$) T%pes o! Mountains
 Folded Mountains

Mountains that are formed primarily by folding
are called !olded #ountains.
 Mountains are classified by the dominant
processes that have formed them.

*rogenesis is the collection of processes that
result in the forming of mountains.
olded Mountains
ault'Block Mountains
11$) T%pes o! Mountains
 .arge-scale normal faults are associated
with structures called fault-block
mountains.

ault'block #ountains are formed as large
blocks of crust are uplifted and tilted along
normal faults.

+rabens are formed by the downward
displacement of fault-bounded blocks.

Horsts are elongated, uplifted blocks of crust
bounded by faults$
ault'Block Mountains
"o#es and Basins
11$) T%pes o! Mountains
 /hen upwarping produces a circular or
elongated structure, the feature is called a
dome.

,pli!ted #ountains are circular or elongated
structures formed by uplifting of the underlying
basement rock.
"o#ed Mountains
Mountain Building at Con&ergent
Boundaries
11$- Mountain or#ation
 Most mountain building occurs at
convergent plate boundaries. 0olliding
plates provide the compressional forces
that fold, fault, and metamorphose the
thick layers of sediments deposited at the
edges of landmasses.
Mountain Building at Con&ergent
Boundaries
11$- Mountain or#ation
 1cean-1cean 0onvergence

1cean-ocean convergence mainly produces
volcanic mountains.
 1cean-0ontinental 0onvergence

he types of mountains formed by ocean-
continental convergence are volcanic mountains
and folded mountains.

(n accretionar% .edge is the accumulation of
different sedimentary and metamorphic rocks
with some scraps of ocean crust.
*cean'*cean Con&ergence
*cean'Continental Con&ergence
Mountain Building at Con&ergent
Boundaries
11$- Mountain or#ation
 0ontinental-0ontinental 0onvergence

(t a convergent boundary between two plates
carrying continental crust, a collision between
the continental fragments will result and form
folded mountains.
Continental'Continental Con&ergence
Mountain Building at "i&ergent
Boundaries
11$- Mountain or#ation
 he mountains that form along ocean
ridges at divergent plate boundaries are
fault-block type mountains.
Mountain Building b%
Continental Accretion
Non'Boundar% Mountains
11$- Mountain or#ation
 *ot all mountains are formed by plate
boundaries. )ome are formed by hot spots
or regional e'tension or stretching.
Continental Accretion
11$- Mountain or#ation
 erranes

Terranes are any crustal fragments that have a
geologic history distinct from that of the ad%oining
fragments.
 Accretion is a process that occurs when
crustal fragments collide with and stay
connected to a continental plate.

erranes occur along the !acific 0oast.
Accretion in /estern North A#erica
0rinciples o! Isostas%
11$- Mountain or#ation

Isostas% is the concept that 2arth3s crust is
floating in gravitational balance upon the material
of the mantle.
 4sostatic (d%ustment for Mountains

&ecause of isostasy, deformed and thickened
crust will undergo regional uplift both during
mountain building and for a long period afterward.

Isostatic ad1ust#ent is the process of
establishing a new level of gravitational
e5uilibrium.
Isostatic Ad1ust#ent
Isostatic Ad1ust#ent in Mountains