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Antosan sakedap

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Welcome to

The World of

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2014 2
Overview :
Members of Group 8
Yusuf (Obama) Sukmana
Portgas Deni Asce
Dede (Afgan) Jumara
Herdianto (Lukman Sardi)
Ahmad I-Ronis

A The Place of English
A1 The Numbers of game
A2 How English got there
A3 Where Englsih fits
A4 The future of English

B Varieties of English
B1 Three circles
B2 Appropiate models of English
B3 General of specific

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Members of Group 8

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The World of
English is not the language with
the largest number of native or
first language speakers.
English is a lingua franca.

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A. The Place of English
Definition - Lingua franca: a language widely
adopted for communication between two
speakers whose native languages are different
from each others and where one or both
speakers are using it as an L2.
Lingua franca.
In Ancient Times in the western world:
Ancient Greek
In Middle Ages in Europe: Latin

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Continue ...
English is one of the main languages of
International communication
Even people who are not speakers of
English often know words such as: bank,
chocolate, computer, hamburger, hospital,
hot dog, hotel, piano, radio, restaurant,
taxi, telephone, television, university and
walkman. Many of these words have
themselves been borrowed by English from
other languages of course.

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Continue ...
English: L1 or L2?
Bray Kachru (1985):
320-380 million: L1
250-350 million: L2

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David Crystal (1995 &1997)
In 75 territories where English holds a
special place (not only Britain, the USA,
Australia, Canada, etc. but also places such
as Hong Kong, India, Malaysia and Nigeria):
277 million L1
98 million L2 (350 million if L2 speakers in
e.g. Canada or Australia)

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Between 600-700 million people in the world speak
English (L1 or L2)
B. Kachru 1983 prediction: If the spread of
English continues at the current rate, by the year
2000 its non-native speakers will outnumber its
native speakers
Even if English will not remain dominant among world
languages, it will remain a vital linguistic tool for
many business people, academics, tourists and
citizens of the world who wish to communicate
easily across nationalities for many years to come.

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A colonial history
Information exchange
Popular culture

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A2 How English got there
Battle for a place among other languages :
dubbed films
Internet growth of other languages
(54% EN 1999 dropping)
Battle with local languages
Linguistic and cultural imperialism

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A3 Where English fits
What happens as more and more people
appropriate it for their own use?
Will it split into varieties that become less
mutually intelligible?
Will it continue to march over the globe
crushing all in its path?
Will it be the only language left?

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A4 The future of English
Graddol (1997) future possibilities:
Hispanic as a language community is
the fastest-growing in the USA
Internet and the WWW: 80% English
in 1990s to drop around 40% by 2010

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Continue ...
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B1 Three circles
Is English just ONE ENGLISH or has it got
many forms, depending on who speaks or writes
it and where they do this? (difference in
pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar)

Factors determining type of English:
Social class
Ethnic grouping

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B Varieties of English
The spread of Englishes

from the United Kingdom to countries where native English
speakers have settled down in large numbers (Kachrus Inner
Circle countries, 1992): Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South
Africa, and the United States as a first language for many

as a second language (Kachrus Outer Circle, 1992): Examples -
Hong Kong, India, Singapore

or a foreign language (Kachrus Expanding Circle, 1992):
Examples - Germany, Hungary, Poland, China, and Japan

Reasons for the spread (Kandiah, 1998):
colonization; global village

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A historical overview mentioning
Kachrus circles
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Another way of classifying Englishes

New Englishes

Older Englishes
(English-based) Pidgins,
Creoles and Decreolized
Kenyan English
Nigerian English
South Asia
Indian English
Lankan English
Pakistani English
Southeast Asia
Filipino English
Malaysian English
Singapore English
North America
American English
Canadian English
Great Britain
English - English
Northern Ireland and the
Republic of Ireland
Irish English
Southern Indian and Pacific
Australian English
New Zealand English
West African Pidgin
Papua New Guinea
Tok Pisin
Sierra Leone
Black English
Hawaii English Creole
Source: p. 9, Kandiah, T. (1998) Why New Englishes?
Which English to teach?
Work with the variety that best reflects
the teachers own language use, always
provided that this will be understood by
most other English speakers in the world
Expose students to others as well
Consider students needs (what the students
are most likely to come into contact with)
Consider resources

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B2 Appropiate models of English
All-purpose language: different language skills,
topics from a range of sources, basing their
selection of content more on student interest
and engagement. Communicate on a general
social level and to cope with the normal range of
texts which educated language users
experience outside their professional lives.
Decision based when we do not know how, why
or when students will need the language in the
future; give them language with the broadest
range of use possible.

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B3 General or specific
ESP (English for Specific Purposes)
EAP (English for Academic Purposes)
EST (English for Science and
Business English

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