You are on page 1of 43

Agricultural Revolution

Industrial Revolution
Green Revolution
A
g
r
i
c
u
l
t
u
r
a
l

r
e
v
o
l
u
t
i
o
n

What is agricultural revolution?
Why did agricultural revolution
appear in England?
Impact of agricultural revolution in
England?
What are the effect of agricultural
revolution?

A
g
r
i
c
u
l
t
u
r
a
l

r
e
v
o
l
u
t
i
o
n

Changes in 16
th
and 18
th
century farming as
Common land went to farmers and they got a
piece of land
Introducing Seed driller and Horse-drawn
cultivator (1700), Cast-iron plow (1797) and
Reaper (1799)
Start practice of crop rotation & use of manure
(around 1700)
Scientific breeding of animals (1725-1795) like
selective breeding of animals
Results of this new technique in England
1700: 80% of population engaged in farming
1800: 40% of population farmed AND produced
a lot more.
Yields improved 300% during 1700-1850
AND Technology expanded over the world!!!
G
l
o
b
a
l

I
m
p
a
c
t
:



A
g
r
i
c
u
l
t
u
r
a
l


R
e
v
o
l
u
t
i
o
n

Population growth Households
income raised more than subsistence
Decline in food cost More
production
Higher labor supply- More labor
force but needed less in farming
Greater discretionary spending -
increased demand for consumer goods
I
n
d
u
s
t
r
i
a
l

r
e
v
o
l
u
t
i
o
n

When and why did industrial revolution
start?
Why did industrial revolution take place in
England?
What was the process of industrial
development during industrial revolution?
What were the factors influencing the
progress of industrial revolution?
What was the development among countries?
What are outcomes of industrial revolution
in creation of working environment?
What were the negative impacts of industrial
revolution?
I
n
d
u
s
t
r
i
a
l

R
e
v
o
l
u
t
i
o
n

This is a phase of changing work and
workers, 1733-1900
During IR, the manufacturing process
shifted from small-scale production by
hand at home to large-scale production
by machine setting in the factory.
Began in England then spread to the
Europe and the United States
In 1860, Britain produced 20% of the
entire worlds output of industrial goods
Really got going in America after the
Civil War (1860s +)
Britain possessed good natural resources
and, with development of city road and
better transportation
Entrepreneurial Culture of the British
Coal mining developed in Britain which
was possible by using steam powered
pumps (innovated in Britain) in mining.
Need for clothing development for trade
Invention of Flying shuttle (1733); Mule
(1762); Waterframe (1785) in Britain.
Colonial Empire - raw materials easily
accessible
I
R
:

W
h
y

i
n

B
r
i
t
a
i
n

I
R
:

H
o
w

i
t

o
c
c
u
r
r
e
d

Use of new basic materials, chiefly iron
and steel for factory
Invention of new machines for cotton
industry, such as spinning jenny, power
loom, etc.
Use of new energy sources such as coal,
steam engine, electricity, etc.
Development of transportation including
railways, steamship, canals, automobile,
etc.
Increasing application of science to industry
from the innovations of light bulb, radio,
telephone, etc.
The factory system entailed increased
division of labor and their specialization that
increased productivity.
C
o
t
t
o
n

I
n
d
u
s
t
r
y

d
e
v
e
l
o
p
m
e
n
t

Looms in the Textile factory increased
from 2,400 in 1813 to 224,000 in 1850
with one million workers in Britain.
New innovations changed the nature of
the industry
Flying shuttle
Cotton jenny
Water frame
Cotton Gin
Processed 8 million pounds raw
cotton in 1770s to 250 million pounds
in 1830 in Britain
Needed cotton to import
M
a
c
h
i
n
e
s

u
s
e
d


f
o
r











c
o
t
t
o
n

i
n
d
u
s
t
r
y

N
e
w

E
n
e
r
g
y

(
s
e
a
m

e
n
g
i
n
e
)

James Watts Steam Engine (1790s)
Steam engine was used as transportation
device and used to run entire factories.
N
e
w

E
n
e
r
g
y

(
C
o
a
l
)

Coal Mining development
Early mining operation
Surface seams exhausted
Mine shafts
Men loosened coal
Women/children hauled it to the shaft

Developed mining operation
Horse driven/steam engine driven pump
Increased coal output dramatically from
3 million tons in 1700; 25 million tons in
1830 in England
T
r
a
n
s
p
o
r
t
a
t
i
o
n

(
r
a
i
l
r
o
a
d
s
)

Steam engine used in transportation device.
Railroads was built during the 1830s and
1840s in England
Waterway could not ship enough
Experimentation with steam driven
carriages
1830: Manchester to Liverpool line
Railroad designed to move coal
Created an increased demand for iron
and steel and a skilled labor force.
But also moved people
Quicker, more comfortable, cheaper
1835: established 750 miles of track
1845: 6000 miles of track sanctioned
T
r
a
n
s
p
o
r
t
a
t
i
o
n

(
r
a
i
l
r
o
a
d
s
)













Transcontinental railroad made travel across
the countries faster, cheaper and more efficient.
T
r
a
n
s
p
o
r
t
a
t
i
o
n

(
c
a
n
a
l
s
)

Canals are manmade waterways
dug between 2 large bodies of
water.
The Erie Canal was a short cut
from the Atlantic Ocean to the
Great Lakes (1817).
The Panama Canal was a
shortcut from the Atlantic to the
Pacific (1880).
S
c
i
e
n
t
i
f
i
c

i
n
n
o
v
a
t
i
o
n
s

Thomas Edison invested LIGHT BULB allowed
factories to work at night.
Alexander Graham Bell invented TELEPHONE
F
a
c
t
o
r
y

s
y
s
t
e
m

I
m
p
a
c
t
s

o
f

t
h
e

I
R

England
Per capita income rose 75% (1801-1851)
Marriage age lowered
Social Reform movements
Progressives government passed laws requiring
workplace safety
Factory Act (1833)
Ten Hour Act (1847)
Mine Act (1842)
USA
Per capita income increased
Labor unions struggled in the 1800s for better
working conditions and they were successful.
A series of reform came during the late 1800
and early 1900s.
The Sixteenth Amendment allows for a
graduated income tax that means rich people
pay a higher percentage than poor people.
I
m
p
a
c
t

o
f

I
R
:

W
o
r
l
d

I
n
d
u
s
t
r
i
a
l
i
z
a
t
i
o
n

P
e
r

C
a
p
i
t
a


1750 1800 1830 1860 1880 1900 1913
base
Britain 10 16 25 64 87 100 115
Belgium 9 10 14 28 43 56 88
USA 4 9 14 21 38 69 126
France 9 9 12 20 28 39 59
Germany 8 8 9 15 25 52 85
Austria 7 7 8 11 15 23 32
Italy 8 8 8 10 12 17 26
Russia 6 6 7 8 10 15 20
China 8 6 6 4 4 3 3
India 7 6 6 3 2 1 2
N
e
g
a
t
i
v
e

I
m
p
a
c
t
s

o
f

I
R

Family structure changed:
At first, the entire family, including the children,
worked in the domestic factory system, just as they
had at home.
Later, family life became fragmented (the father
worked in the factory, the mother handled domestic
matters, the children went to school).
Development at the Cost of Workers
Higher products often at the expense of
workers. For example, the raw wool and
cotton that fed the British textile mills came
from converted from farming to sheep
raising, leaving farm workers without jobs
Labor force was abundant who had to work
even 10 to 12 hours a day for their
subsistence
Sheer number of human beings put pressure
on inadequate resources in cities : housing,
water, sewers, food supplies, and lighting
N
e
g
a
t
i
v
e

I
m
p
a
c
t
s

o
f

I
R

Development at the Cost of Environment
The chemicals and gas produced by factories are
harmful to human beings and environment.
The waste produced by factories continues to be
dumped into our rivers, lakes, and streams
All these toxics are slowly killing off everything
that is important to our very survival.
N
e
g
a
t
i
v
e

I
m
p
a
c
t
s

o
f

I
R

W
o
r
l
d

T
o
p

P
r
o
d
u
c
e
r
s

Textile
1. China
2. USA
3. Italy
4. Japan
5. India
6. Mexico
7. Thailand
8. Indonesia
9. Pakistan
10. Germany
Automobile
1. Japan
2. USA
3. China
4. Germany
5. S. Korea
6. France
7. Brazil
8. Spain
9. Canada
10. India
Oil
1. Saudi Arabia
2. Russia
3. USA
4. Iran
5. Mexico
6. China
7. Canada
8. UAE
9. Venezuela
10. Norway
G
r
e
e
n

r
e
v
o
l
u
t
i
o
n

Why green revolution was necessary?
Why did green revolution spread in Asia?
What is the process of agricultural
development during green revolution?
How did green revolution contribute to the
world food production?
What type of competition has been created
among grains from their higher production?
What are the consequences of competition
among grains under the changing of
consumption pattern?
What are the negative impacts of green
revolution?
How has agribusiness mode been changed?
G
r
e
e
n

R
e
v
o
l
u
t
i
o
n


Mexico: Home of the Green Revolution
Green Revolution usually refers to the
transformation of agriculture that began
in 1945
Norman Borlaug, the biggest contributor
to Green Revolution who joined
Rockefeller Foundation team in Mexico.
He conducted research on development
of wheat variety for higher yield.
1960s: Improved wheat varieties gave
dramatic increase in yield in Mexico
Borlaug won Nobel Peace Prize in 1970
1965: 250 tons to Pakistan;
200 tons to India

1966: 18,000 tons to India

1967: 42,000 tons to Pakistan;
21,000 tons to Turkey

Wheat Seed Shipment to Asia
International Rice Research Institute
(IRRI) developed a semi-dwarf rice
variety in 1966 that could produce more
rice with certain fertilizers and irrigation.
1970s: Rice variety spread to millions of
farmers in Asia and third world
1990s: 40% of all farms in third world
75% Rice farming in Asia
80% Wheat farming in third world
Improved standard of living for millions
people worldwide

Development and Spread of
Rice variety
.
Cereal
Wheat Rice Irrigation Fertilizer Tractors Prodn
million ha million t millions million t
Green Revolution:
Changes in Factors of Production in
Developing Countries of Asia
(M ha / % area)
Adoption of
Modern varieties
1961 0 / 0% 0 / 0% 87 2 0.2 309
1970 14 / 20% 15 / 20% 106 10 0.5 463
1980 39 / 49% 55 / 43% 129 29 2.0 618
1990 60 / 70% 85 / 65% 158 54 3.4 858
2000 70 / 84% 100 / 74% 175 70 4.8 962

Source: FAOSTAT, July 2002 and authors estimated on modern variety
adoption, based on CIMMYT and IRRI data.
Technology Saved Areas, 1950-2000
WORLD GRAIN PRODUCTION
1950 650 million ton from 610 million ha
2000 1900 million ton from 660 million ha (without GR tech. needed 1.76 billion ha)
1,800
1,400
1,000
600
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
LAND SAVED
1.1 billion ha
LAND USED
660 million ha
M
i
l
l
i
o
n

h
e
c
t
a
r
e
s

200
* Uses milled rice equivalents
Source: FAO Production Yearbooks and AGROSTAT
Grain
Soybn Wheat
Rice
Corn Other
Competition
among the crops.
-- Contemporary Global Grain
Supply Demand Competition
Grain
Soybn Wheat
Rice
Corn
Other
0
20
40
60
80
100
2075 2100 2125 2150
A
n
n
u
a
l

I
n
c
r
e
m
e
n
t
s
0
2
4
6
8
10
P
o
p
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

s
i
z
e
Long-term world population growth, 1750 to 2150
Millions
Billions Billions
A
n
n
u
a
l

i
n
c
r
e
m
e
n
t
s

P
o
p
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

s
i
z
e

Source: United Nation: Long-range World Population Projections: Based on the 1998 Revision, Executive Summary,
(http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/longrange/longrange.htm), The World at Six Billion,
(http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/sixbillion/sixbillion.htm)
?!
No population explosion!!
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
1
9
6
1
1
9
6
3
1
9
6
5
1
9
6
7
1
9
6
9
1
9
7
1
1
9
7
3
1
9
7
5
1
9
7
7
1
9
7
9
1
9
8
1
1
9
8
3
1
9
8
5
1
9
8
7
1
9
8
9
1
9
9
1
1
9
9
3
1
9
9
5
1
9
9
7
1
9
9
9
2
0
0
1
2
0
0
3
2
0
0
5
(Million MT)
Rice
Wheat
Corn
Soybean
Source: S. Ito; World Food Statistics and Graphics (http://worldfood.muses.tottori-u.ac.jp), Tottori University, Japan June 15, 2002. (Original sources are
from ERS/USDA; PS&D View , November 2004).
Note: Rice is milled basis.
Fig. 16. Evolution of world total production for rice, wheat, corn and soybeans, 61-04

Competition among crops!!
Fig.1. Per capita consumption of rice for Japan, Taiwan,
South Korea and China during 1961 - 2004
0
40
80
120
160
200
1
9
6
1
1
9
6
3
1
9
6
5
1
9
6
7
1
9
6
9
1
9
7
1
1
9
7
3
1
9
7
5
1
9
7
7
1
9
7
9
1
9
8
1
1
9
8
3
1
9
8
5
1
9
8
7
1
9
8
9
1
9
9
1
1
9
9
3
1
9
9
5
1
9
9
7
1
9
9
9
2
0
0
1
2
0
0
3
2
0
0
5
2
0
0
7
(Kg)
Japan
Taiwan
Sout h Korea
China
Source: S.It o, World Food St at ist ics & Graphics (ht t p://worldfood.muses.t ot t ori-u.ac.jp)
Original dat a sources: USDA: PS&D View , November 2004; USBC: Int ernat ional Dat a Base, July 2003.
Milled basis
People cut rice consumption!!
Source : http://www.fapri.org/tools/outlook.aspx
World per capita consumption for wheat, corn and soybean,
1993-2013
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
1
9
9
3
1
9
9
4
1
9
9
5
1
9
9
6
1
9
9
7
1
9
9
8
1
9
9
9
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
1
2
0
0
2
2
0
0
3
2
0
0
4
2
0
0
5
2
0
0
6
2
0
0
7
2
0
0
8
2
0
0
9
2
0
1
0
2
0
1
1
2
0
1
2
2
0
1
3
kg/capita
Wheat Corn Soybean Rice
Will rice and wheat fall!!
Fig. 21 World rice total consumption; 1960-2050
0
100000
200000
300000
400000
500000
600000
1
9
6
0
1
9
6
3
1
9
6
6
1
9
6
9
1
9
7
2
1
9
7
5
1
9
7
8
1
9
8
1
1
9
8
4
1
9
8
7
1
9
9
0
1
9
9
3
1
9
9
6
1
9
9
9
2
0
0
2
2
0
0
5
2
0
0
8
2
0
1
1
2
0
1
4
2
0
1
7
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
3
2
0
2
6
2
0
2
9
2
0
3
2
2
0
3
5
2
0
3
8
2
0
4
1
2
0
4
4
2
0
4
7
2
0
5
0
1000mt
China rate
- 0.331%
China rate
1.77%
like Japan
China rate
3.452% like
Taiwan
Weaker demand for rice
and wheat means
Over-supply of rice and wheat
Decline global market prices
Loss to producers
End up with smaller production
Then ??
GR technology is Fertilizers - Irrigation
- Pesticides based production system
Expensive inputs: profits go to global
companies as poor countries import:
Irrigation devices
Fertilizers
Pesticides
Increased INEQUALITY
Irrigation: Wealthy invested, got richer,
drove out poor
Pesticide: Need gradually more
Fertilizer: Fertilizer use increases by
huge amount
Production: Need more inputs each
year for same production that the poor
cant pay and got less production
G
R

I
m
p
a
c
t
:



D
e
p
e
n
d
e
n
c
y

&

I
n
e
q
u
a
l
i
t
y

Economic power and land control went to a
few landowners who were bigger growers
Benefits of GR technology went to
Middlemen as farmers to depend for selling
Banks as farmers to invest for new technology
Chemical companies as farmers to use
Food flows from the poor and hungry nations
to the rich and well-fed nations
Production increased AND more food
at same time increases inequity
Green Revolution not sustainable
destroys resource base like soil and
environment on which agriculture depends
G
R

I
m
p
a
c
t
:



D
e
p
e
n
d
e
n
c
y

&

I
n
e
q
u
a
l
i
t
y

E
x
a
m
p
l
e
:

I
n
d
i
a

a
n
d

B
D

India and Bangladesh
Self-sufficient in grain
due to Green Revolution
But 1/3 of people poor
Poor cannot afford to
BUY enough food
W
o
r
l
d

T
o
p

P
r
o
d
u
c
e
r
s

Rice
1. China
2. India
3. Indonesia
4. Bangladesh
5. Vietnam
6. Thailand
7. Myanmar
8. Philippines
9. Brazil
10. Japan
Wheat
1. China
2. India
3. USA
4. Russia
5. France
6. Canada
7. Australia
8. Germany
9. Pakistan
10. Turkey
Potato
1. China
2. Russia
3. India
4. USA
5. Ukraine
6. Germany
7. Poland
8. Belgium
9. Netherlands
10. France
W
o
r
l
d

T
o
p

P
r
o
d
u
c
e
r
s

Jute
1. India
2. Bangladesh
3. China
4. Cte d'Ivoire
5. Thailand
6. Myanmar
7. Brazil
8. Uzbekistan
9. Nepal
10. Vietnam
Tea
1. China
2. India
3. Sri Lanka
4. Kenya
5. Turkey
6. Indonesia
7. Vietnam
8. Japan
9. Argentina
10. Bangladesh
Cotton
1. China
2. USA
3. India
4. Pakistan
5. Brazil
6. Uzbekistan
7. Turkey
8. Australia
9. Greece
10. Syria
C
h
a
n
g
i
n
g

m
o
d
e

o
f

A
g
r
i
b
u
s
i
n
e
s
s

Phases: Basic need-based business
Colonization Capitalistic agribusiness
Basic Need based business
Agricultural production used to meet the basic
needs of the people and industry spices for
foods & cotton for textile
Colonization and demand for raw materials
Colonization was a peculiar phenomenon
needed a continuous supply of raw materials at a
large level for industries.
Large scale production seeks was possible
through mechanization and other mode of
technological innovations.
Agriculture was replaced by the industry in two
stages; during industrial revolution, and since the
mid- twentieth century by capitalistic agribusiness.
C
h
a
n
g
i
n
g

m
o
d
e

o
f

A
g
r
i
b
u
s
i
n
e
s
s

Capitalistic agribusiness
Capitalistic agribusiness started to rise in the mid-
twentieth century.
Small number of industries concentrated towards
supplies of inputs and also became concentrated in
food processing, distribution and retailing.
Capitalistic mode of production tends to capture
more share of production and occupy the market
through large corporation
US food processing firms like ConAgra, Cargill,
Tyson-foods, Goldkist, etc. occupy major share in
food distribution in the USA and also in the world.
Four large US firms process from 57% to 76% of
corn, wheat and soybeans in USA.
Many transnational firms started as relatively small
local firms but expanded their operations with
global integration by building new facilities,
acquisitions and mergers with other firms.