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Work study

• A productivity improvement tool of industrial engineering.
• Where is this done? – At any place of work where value
adding activity is carried out
• When is work-study done?–Q C D parameters are poor
• Who does work-study? Trained work study expert
• It is systematic examination of carrying out an activity so
as to improve the effective use of resources and to set
up standards of performance for the activity being
carried out.
Why is this done?
• Productivity improvement : Better utilization of
• Achievement of QCD objectives
• To expose weak areas in management
• To identify training needs
• To establish industrial engineering standards
• Formulation of Incentive Schemes
How is this done?

• Through method study and work measurement.

• Method study deals with studying method of doing the work for
identifying and eliminating non value activities.

• Work that is carried out comprises of various activities which add
only cost and no value

• Method study removes the NVAs [non value activities] by design
which makes the productivity go up

• After removing NVAs the time required for doing value adding work
is measured
Activity /Operation
• Basic work Content
• Excessive work content
 Poor design or pdt specifications or improper utilisation
of materials
 Inefficient methods of manufacture or operation
 Excessive work content due to human factor
Steps of work study

1) Select [M/S & W/M]
 Human angle
 Technological angle
 Economical angle
2) Record the facts
3) Examine Critically
 ask primary & secondary questions
Steps of work study

4) Develop & evaluate the improved method
5) Define the new method clearly
6) Install the new method
Work Measurement
 Technique used to establish the time for a qualified
worker to carry out a task at a defined rate of working.

Principal Techniques of Work Measurement are :
1) Time study
2) Work sampling
3) Structured Estimation
4) Predetermined Time standards
Time study
• Element: An element is a distinct part of a specified job
selected for convenience of measurement and analysis
• Work cycle: A work cycle is a sequence of elements
which are required to perform a job or yield a unit of
• Qualified worker: Qualified worker is one who has the
necessary physical attributes, intelligence and education,
skills and knowledge to carryout the work in hand to
satisfactory standards of safety, quantity and quality
 Standard Performance: is the rate of output qualified
workers would naturally achieve without over exertion as
an average over the working day or shift, provided they
adhere to the specified method and they are motivated
to apply themselves to work
 Rating: Relative assessment of a worker whose
performance is under observation by comparing to the
performance of a qualified worker
 Allowances: Additional time added to the normal time to
• employees to attend to their personal needs (Relaxation
• Run more than one machine (Interference Allowance)
• Overcome unexpected and unavoidable delays
• Increase their earnings (Policy Allowance)
 Standard Time: Time needed by a qualified worker to
completely perform a job under normal working
• Observations: Observing the worker performing
an element of the job with his or her full
knowledge with the intention of recording the
time required for performance. When
observations are made as a part of time study
• Observed time: time recorded for performance
of an element by a worker under observation
• Basic time or Normalized time: The time
required by a qualified worker to perform the
element which is performed by the worker under
observation. When observed time is multiplied
by rating we get basic time or normalized time.
Suitability of Time Study
• Time study is suitable for repetitive
activities which are found in a mass
production system
How time study is done?

• Select the Job & worker : full knowledge of the
worker, active participation is necessary
• Break the job into elements
• Time each job element
• Average out the time
• Rating – rate the worker
• Deciding allowances
• Compile standard time
Work Sampling
• It is a technique in which a large number of observations
are made over a period of time of a group of machines,
processes or workers.
• Each observation records what is happening at that
instant and the percentage of observations recorded for
a particular activity i.e. measure of the percentage of
time during which that activity or delay occurs”
Analytical Estimation

• Work measurement is based on experience and
• The job is split into bunch of elements and time required
is estimated applying ones experience and judgment
• Suitable for non repetitive activities carried out
infrequently like maintenance job or projects
• “Analytical estimation is a work measurement technique
whereby the time required to carry out elements of a job
at defined level of performance is estimated from
knowledge and practical experience of performing the
elements concerned
Comparative Estimation
• It relies on the identification & measurement of
“benchmark” jobs of known work content against which
all other jobs to be measured are compared.
• Benchmark jobs are selected to represent the whole
range of work involved and to represent intermediate
points on the overall scale of the job.
• Each of bench mark job is assigned to appropriate slot
Comparative Estimation
• Estimator refers to the benchmark jobs and compares
the job being measured
• A comparison of the work content of the job to be
estimated with the no. of benchmark jobs
• Once slot is assigned correctly to the job, basic time is
assigned to that slot.
Predetermined Time Standard

Motion Description
Reach Move hand to description
Grasp Secure control of object
with fingers
Move Move object
Position Line up and engage object

Release Let go of object
Body Motions Leg or trunk movements
Job Design
• Process of deciding on the content of a
job in terms of duties & responsibilities of
the job holders.
• Goals  Higher productivity, operational
efficiency, quality of product/service.
Job Design Options
• Job Rotation : Movement of an employee
from one job to another.
• Job Enlargement : Adding more and
different tasks to a specialized job to
provide greater variety.
• Job bandwidth: Narrow job design &
Broad job design