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Cylinder Block

Cylinders of a multi-
cylinder engine are cast
as a single block in grey
iron as shown here.
Air compressor fits
This lower part of the
block is the crankcase
where the crankshaft
rotates. The cylinder
block and crankcase
are cast as an integral
The entire side face of
the cylinder bore is filled
with cooling water on
both sides.
Interesting fact: Cylinder block is always cast upside down.
Thats one great idea actually. When you cast the bore upside
down, the gases escaping from the top cause blow holes in the
crankcase region of the block where we can afford some
compromise with strength unlike the cylinder bores.
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Cylinder head
Cylinder head is mounted on
the cylinder block and forms
the upper part of the
combustion chamber.
This is the underside of the head.
For airtight sealing with the block, 3
parameters have to be checked -
Flatness not exceeding 0.05mm
Localized waviness
Surface finish
These two holes accommodate the
valves the bigger one is for the
inlet valve and the smaller one is
for the exhaust valve.
The head has inlet and exhaust
ports. The valves, valve operating
mechanisms & fuel injectors fit in
the head. It also has holes for
cooling water and lubricant.
Fuel injector tip projects
from here.
Cylinder head is cast in
one piece from grey iron.
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Dowel hole
Dowel hole
Maximum permissible out of parallelism of lower and upper
machined surfaces of the head is 0.1 mm.
This is the crankshaft and it performs the critical function of converting the reciprocating
motion of the pistons into rotational motion.
This end has a flange which fits on
the flywheel.
These are the 6 crankpins for each of the
pistons. The crank pin and main bearing dia
parallelism should be within 10 microns.
This is the timing
gear which
drives the
These are the 7 main bearing diameters.
All the journals and
Crank pins are
induction hardened.

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Key way for
vibration damper
The camshaft is one of the most critical components of the engine.
Why is that?
Thats because the camshaft drives almost every other mechanism of the engine.
The most important function of the camshaft is to operate the valves of the engine.
These are 4 main
bearing surfaces of
the camshaft which
rest on the block with
diameters increasing
from left to right
The camshaft drives the
air compressor which
supplies air for the
brakes. This eccentric
diameter is where the air
compressor con-rod fits.
This gear drives the oil
pump of the engine to
circulate the lubricating
oil. Camshaft must be
straightened before
cutting this gear to get
the required gear
These are the
12 cam lobes
for operating
the 12 valves
of the engine.
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These two holes are drilled after
casting in the foundry. They are
used as reference for drilling the
machining reference on the sump
These are the machining
references for subsequent
machining of the cylinder block.
Tata motors
Truck factory
Engine factory
Cab & cowl factory
Forge & foundry factory
Frame factory
TML driveline
Engine Factory
Machining shop
Assembly line
Machining of Crankshaft
There are 25 work stations.