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Sourabh Bhardwaj

ROLL NO: 1304112
Introduction to Computer Networks

Computer Networks

Computer network
connects two or more
autonomous computers.

The computers can be
geographically located
Introduction to Computer Networks
Introduction to Computer Networks

Network in small geographical Area (Room, Building
or a Campus) is called LAN (Local Area Network)

Network in a City is call MAN (Metropolitan Area

Network spread geographically (Country or across
Globe) is called WAN (Wide Area Network)
Applications of Networks
Introduction to Computer Networks

Resource Sharing
Hardware (computing resources, disks, printers)
Software (application software)
Information Sharing
Easy accessibility from anywhere (files, databases)
Search Capability (WWW)
Message broadcast
Remote computing
Distributed processing (GRID Computing)
Network Topology

The network topology
defines the way in
which computers,
printers, and other
devices are connected.
A network topology
describes the layout of
the wire and devices as
well as the paths used
by data transmissions.
Introduction to Computer Networks
Bus Topology

Commonly referred to
as a linear bus, all the
devices on a bus
topology are connected
by one single cable.
Introduction to Computer Networks
Star & Tree Topology
Introduction to Computer Networks
The star topology is the most
commonly used architecture in
Ethernet LANs.
When installed, the star
topology resembles spokes in
a bicycle wheel.
Larger networks use the
extended star topology also
called tree topology. When
used with network devices that
filter frames or packets, like
bridges, switches, and routers,
this topology significantly
reduces the traffic on the wires
by sending packets only to the
wires of the destination host.
Ring Topology
Introduction to Computer Networks
A frame travels around the ring,
stopping at each node. If a node
wants to transmit data, it adds the
data as well as the destination
address to the frame.
The frame then continues around
the ring until it finds the
destination node, which takes the
data out of the frame.
Single ring All the devices on
the network share a single cable
Dual ring The dual ring topology
allows data to be sent in both
Mesh Topology

The mesh topology
connects all devices
(nodes) to each other
for redundancy and
fault tolerance.
It is used in WANs to
interconnect LANs and
for mission critical
networks like those
used by banks and
financial institutions.
Implementing the mesh
topology is expensive
and difficult.
Introduction to Computer Networks
Network Components
Introduction to Computer Networks

Physical Media
Interconnecting Devices
Networking Software
Networking Media

Networking media can
be defined simply as
the means by which
signals (data) are sent
from one computer to
another (either by cable
or wireless means).
Introduction to Computer Networks
Networking Devices
Introduction to Computer Networks

HUB, Switches, Routers,
Wireless Access Points,
Modems etc.
Computers: Clients and Servers
In a client/server
network arrangement,
network services are
located in a dedicated
computer whose only
function is to respond
to the requests of

The server contains the
file, print, application,
security, and other
services in a central
computer that is
continuously available
to respond to client
Introduction to Computer Networks
Networking Protocol: TCP/IP
Introduction to Computer Networks

Searchable Data (Web Sites)
News Groups
Internet Telephony (VoIP)
Video Conferencing
Chat Groups
Instant Messengers
Internet Radio
Introduction to Computer Networks
Computer Networks
A computer network is a system for communicating
between two or more computers and associated devices
A popular example of a computer network is the internet,
which allows millions of users to share information
Computer networks can be classified according to their
Personal area network (PAN)
Local area network (LAN)
Metropolitan area network (MAN)
Wide area network (WAN)
An example of a network
Personal Area Network
A PAN is a network that is used for
communicating among computers and
computer devices (including
telephones) in close proximity of
around a few meters within a room
It can be used for communicating
between the devices themselves, or for
connecting to a larger network such as
the internet
PANs can be wired or wireless
PANs can be wired with a computer
bus such as a universal serial bus: USB
(a serial bus standard for connecting
devices to a computer-many devices can
be connected concurrently)
PANs can also be wireless through the
use of bluetooth (a radio standard
designed for low power consumption
for interconnecting computers and
devices such as telephones, printers or
keyboards to the computer) or IrDA
(infrared data association) technologies
A LAN is a network that is used for communicating among
computer devices, usually within an office building or
LANs enable the sharing of resources such as files or
hardware devices that may be needed by multiple users
Is limited in size, typically spanning a few hundred meters,
and no more than a mile
Is very fast, with speeds from 10 Mbps to 10 Gbps
Requires very little wiring, typically a single cable
connecting to each device
Has lower cost compared to MANs or WANs

Local Area Network
LAN basics
LANs can either be made wired or wireless. Twisted pair, coax or fiber optic cable can be
used in wired LANs
Nodes in a LAN are linked together with a certain topology. These topologies include:
Branching tree
A node is defined to be any device connected to the network. This could be a computer, a
printer etc.
A Hub is a networking device that connects multiple segments of the network together
A Network Interface Card (NIC) is the circuit board that is used to connect computers to the
network. In most cases, this is an Ethernet card plugged in a computers motherboard
The Network Operating System (NOS) is the software that enables users to share files and
hardware and communicate with other computers. Examples of NOS include: Windows XP,
Windows NT, Sun Solaris, Linux, etc..
Resource sharing in a LAN is accomplished with different access methods. These include:
Token based access

Types of LANs
The three most popular types of LANs
Token ring
FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface)
First network to provide CSMA/CD
Developed in 1976 by Xerox PARC (Palo Alto
Research Center) in cooperation with DEC and Intel
Is a fast and reliable network solution
One of the most widely implemented LAN standards
Can provide speeds in the range of 10Mbps- 10
Used with a bus or star topology

Types of Ethernet LANs
Operates at 10 Mbps
IEEE 802.3 standard
Fast Ethernet (100Base-T)
Operates at 100 Mbps
Gigabit Ethernet
Operates at 1 Gbps
Uses fiber optic cable
10 Gbps Ethernet
Latest development of ethernet
Uses fiber optic cable
Developed to meet the increasing bandwidth needs of the LAN
Wireless Ethernet
IEEE 802.11 standard
Operates at around 2.4 Gbps

FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface)
FDDI is a standard developed by
the American National Standards
Institute (ANSI) for transmitting data
on optical fibers
Supports transmission rates of up
to 200 Mbps
Uses a dual ring
First ring used to carry data at 100
Second ring used for primary
backup in case first ring fails
If no backup is needed, second ring
can also carry data, increasing the
data rate up to 200 Mbps
Supports up to 1000 nodes
Has a range of up to 200 km

Wide area network
A Wide Area Network is a network spanning a large
geographical area of around several hundred miles to across
the globe
May be privately owned or leased
Also called enterprise networks if they are privately owned by
a large company
It can be leased through one or several carriers (ISPs-Internet
Service Providers) such as AT&T, Sprint, Cable and Wireless
Can be connected through cable, fiber or satellite
Is typically slower and less reliable than a LAN
Services include internet, frame relay, ATM (Asynchronous
Transfer Mode)

Example of WAN application
Runs a 100 Mbps LAN
Runs a 1Gbps LAN
Sprint provisions a connection
between the two networks
Network Interconnection Components
Networks can be connected to each other
through several components
Before explaining the above components, we
need to understand the OSI model