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MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES

APPLICATION

Water Contaminants
Class Typical Example
Suspended solids Dirt, clay, colloidal materials
Dissolved organics Trihalomethanes, synthetic
organic chemicals, humic
acids, fulvic acids
Dissolved ionics (salts) Heavy metals, silica, arsenic,
nitrate
Microorganisms Bacteria, viruses, protozoan
cysts, fungi, algae
Gases Hydrogen sulfide, methane,
radon
Filtration Range
Particle Size
Human Hair ~
75 microns
Yeast Cell =
3.00 microns
Bacteria =
0.45 microns
Ferric Iron
Molecule =
0.001 microns
Relative Sizes of Particles
xxx
Substance Microns Inches
Grain of table
salt
100 0.0039
Human hair 80 0.0032
Lower limit of
visibility
40 0.0016
Milled flour 25 0.0010
Red blood
cells
8 0.0003
Bacteria 2 0.0001
Feed
Permeate or
Filtrate
Barrier media
Conventional dead-end
Filtration
Crossflow Filtration
Feed Concentrate
Permeate
Membrane
Sweeping by
Tangential Flow
Feed
Concentrate
Permeate
Membrane

Continuous process resulting in automatic and
uninterrupted operation
Low energy utilization involving neither phase nor
temperature changes
Modular design no significant size limitations
Minimal moving parts with low maintenance
requirements
No effect on form or chemistry of the contaminant
Discrete membrane barrier to ensure physical
separation
No chemical addition requirements

Membrane Separation
Technologies Features
Microfiltration
Microfiltration
xxx
Ultrafiltration
Ultrafiltration
Nanofiltration
MEMBRANE
REVERSE
OSMOSIS

Osmosis
Lower
concentration
Higher
concentration
Semi-permeable
Membrane
Osmosis
Water Flow
Level rises
Difference in
level is
Osmotic
Pressure
Reverse Osmosis
Pressure
Semi-permeable
Membrane
Can force (reverse)
osmotic flow to
lower-concentration
side
Reverse Osmosis Applied
Pressure
Semi-permeable
Membrane
Fresh water
Feed Water
Concentrate
Flow
Reverse Osmosis
Osmotic Pressure
Equation
p = 1.19(T + 273)
S
M
i
p = Osmotic Pressure (psi)
T = Water Temperature (
o
C)
M
i
= Molar Concentration of
individual ions (gmol/L)
Solute Concentration as a
Function of Osmotic Pressure
500
400
300
200
100
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Concentration in Water (w/w %)
O
s
m
o
t
i
c

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
)

Membrane Comparisons
Parameters Cellulosic
Thin Film
Composite
Effect of Bacteria Some bacteria
will attack
Very bacteria
resistant
pH Range 4.0 8.5 2.0 11.0
Chlorine
Tolerance
Excellent
Resistance
Poor Resistance
200 - 1000 ppm
hrs.
% Rejection
Nominal TDS
dependence
92%
Decreases as
TDS Increases
95%
Constant
Nitrate Rejection 0% - 65% 40% - 90%
Temperature Limit 87
o
F (31
o
C) 112
o
F (45
o
C)
Membrane Technology
Comparison Chart
Feature Microfiltration Ultrafiltration Nanofiltration Reverse Osmosis
Polymers Ceramics, sintered
metals, polypropylene,
polysulfone,
polyethersulfone,
polyvinylidene fluoride,
polytetrafluoroethy-liene
Ceramics, sintered
metals, cellulosics,
polysulfone,
polyethersulfone,
polyvinylidene fluoride
Thin film composites,
cellulosics
Thin film composites,
cellulosics
Pore Size Range
(micrometers)
0.01 - 1.0 0.001 - 0.01 0.0001 - 0.001 <0.0001
Molecular Weight Cutoff
Range (Daltons)
>100,000 2,000 - 100,000 300 - 1,000 100 - 200
Operating Pressure
Range
<30 20 - 100 50 - 300 225 - 1,000
Suspended Solids
Removal
Yes Yes Yes Yes
Dissolved Organics
Removal
None Yes Yes Yes
Dissolved Inorganics
Removal
None None 20-85% 95-99%
Microorganism Removal Protozoan cysts, algae,
bacteria*
Protozoan cysts, algae,
bacteria*
All* All*
Osmotic Pressure Effects None Slight Moderate High
Concentration Capabilities High High Moderate Moderate
Permeate Purity High High Moderate-high High
Energy Usage Low Low Low-moderate Moderate
Membrane Stability High High Moderate Moderate
Capillary (Hollow) Fiber
Hollow Fiber UF
Tubular
Tubular Membrane Elements
Spiral Wound
Membrane Element
Configuration Comparison
Element
Configura-
tion
Packing
Density *
Fouling
Resistance
**
Capillary
Fiber
Medium High
Plate and
Frame
Low High
Spiral Wound Medium Moderate
Tubular Low high
* Membrane area per unit volume of element ** Tolerance to suspended solids
OSMOTIC PROCESSES
Concentrated
Solution
Pure
Water
OSMOTIC PROCESSES
Osmosis
Concentrated
Solution
Pure
Water
OSMOTIC PROCESSES
Concentrated
Solution
Purified
Water
OSMOTIC PROCESSES
Reverse Osmosis
Concentrated
Solution
Purified
Water
Pressure
REVERSE OSMOSIS
PERFORMANCE
Feed

Permeate

Reject
(Brine)
WATER RECOVERY
SOLUTE REJECTION
Water Recovery = x 100%
Permeate Flow
Feedwater Flow
REVERSE OSMOSIS
PERFORMANCE
Feed

Permeate

Reject
(Brine)
75% Recovery
100 m
3
/hr
25 m
3
/hr
75 m
3
/hr
Rejection = x 100%
C
F
- C
P
C
F
SALT PASSAGE
% Salt Passage = 100 - % Rejection
90% Rejection = 10% Salt Passage
REVERSE OSMOSIS
PERFORMANCE
Feed
100 m
3
/hr

75%
Recovery


Permeate
75 m
3
/hr

Reject

25 m
3
/hr

REVERSE OSMOSIS
PERFORMANCE
Feed
100 m
3
/hr

75%
Recovery
90%
Rejection
Permeate
75 m
3
/hr

Reject

25 m
3
/hr

REVERSE OSMOSIS
PERFORMANCE
Feed
100 m
3
/hr
100 mg/L Ca
75%
Recovery
90%
Rejection
Permeate
75 m
3
/hr
10 mg/L Ca
Reject

25 m
3
/hr
370 mg/L Ca
REVERSE OSMOSIS
PERFORMANCE
Feed
100 m
3
/hr
100 mg/L Ca
75%
Recovery
90%
Rejection
Permeate
75 m
3
/hr
10 mg/L Ca
Reject

25 m
3
/hr
370 mg/L Ca
Concentration
Factor
=
Feed Flow
Reject Flow
REVERSE OSMOSIS
PERFORMANCE
Feed
100 m
3
/hr
100 mg/L Ca
75%
Recovery
90%
Rejection
Permeate
75 m
3
/hr
10 mg/L Ca
Reject

25 m
3
/hr
370 mg/L Ca
Concentration
Factor
=
Feed Flow
Reject Flow
400 mg/L Ca
SEMI-PERMEABLE
MEMBRANE
Water
Dissolved
Solids Macromolecules
MEMBRANE MATERIALS
Cellulose Acetate (CA)
Polyamide (PA)
CA MEMBRANE
Micro-Porous Region
Non-Porous Region
FEED
REJECT
PERMEATE
FEED
REJECT
CROSS-FLOW FILTRATION
PERMEATE
FEED
REJECT
PA MEMBRANE
Micro-Porous Support Layer (Polysulfone)
Non-Porous Layer (Polyamide)
PA MEMBRANE
PERMEATE
FEED
REJECT
PA MEMBRANE
PERMEATE
FEED
REJECT
Intl
RO MEMBRANE PERFORMANCE
RO MEMBRANE
PERFORMANCE
Solute CA Membrane PA
Membrane
Sodium 85 - 99 96 - 99
Chloride 85 - 99 96 - 99
Calcium 90 - 99+ 98 - 99+
Magnesium 90 - 99+ 98 - 99+
Sulfate 90 - 99+ 98 - 99+
Carbonate 90 - 99+ 98 - 99+
Conductivity 85 - 99 97 - 99
Silica 80 - 90 98
GASES 0 0

COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES -
COMMERCIAL RO MEMBRANES
Property CA Membrane PA
Membrane
Surface Charge Neutral Negative
Pressure 21 - 42 kgm/cm
2
10.5 - 28
kgm/cm
2

(300 - 600 psi ) (150 - 400
psi)
Temperature 35
o
C (95F) 45
o
C
(113F)
pH (operating) 4 - 6 3 - 11
Chlorine, free up to 1.0 mg/L None
Typical Lifetime 2 - 3 years 2 - 5 years
Cost (per module) X 1.5X


COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES -
COMMERCIAL RO MEMBRANES
CA Membrane PA
Membrane
ADVANTAGE Forgiving High
Rejection
DISADVANTAGE High Pressure Chlorine
Sensitive
pH Sensitive Fouling Prone
TYPICAL USE Surface Water Ground
Water
Membrane
Permeate Spacer
Feed Spacer
Membrane
SPIRAL WOUND MODULE
Membrane
Permeate Spacer
Feed Spacer
Membrane
Feed in
Feed in
Concentrate Out
Concentrate Out
SPIRAL WOUND MODULE
Feed Flow
Feed Flow
Membrane
Permeate Spacer
Feed Spacer
Membrane
Feed in
Feed in
Permeate
Concentrate Out
Concentrate Out
SPIRAL WOUND MODULE
Feed Flow
Feed Flow
REJECT
FEED
PERMEATE
HOLLOW FIBER MODULE
Comparisons of RO System
Types
System Costs :
Spiral equal to hollow fiber
Flexibility in Design :
Spiral >> hollow fiber
Cleaning Behaviour :
Spiral > hollow fiber
System Space Requirements :
Spiral > hollow fiber
Susceptibility to Fouling :
hollow fiber >> spiral
Energy Requirement :
Hollow fiber > spiral

2
RO SYSTEM DESIGN
RO SYSTEM DESIGN
Module (Element): Contains Membrane
Tube: Modules in Series (4 - 6)
Stage: Set of Tubes in Parallel
Array: Arrangement of tubes; # Tubes/Stage
Train: Set of all of the Above
RO SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM
1st stage
4 tubes
2nd stage
2 tubes
RO SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM
1st stage
4 tubes
2nd stage
2 tubes
4 X 2 ARRAY
RO SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM
4 X 2 ARRAY
2 STAGES
1 TRAIN
FEED
RO SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM
1st stage

FEED
RO SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM
1st stage

2nd stage

FEED
PERMEATE
RO SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM
1st stage

2nd stage

FEED
PERMEATE
CONCENTRATE
RO SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM
1st stage

2nd stage

FEED
PERMEATE
CONCENTRATE
RO SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM
1st stage

2nd stage

50% MAXIMUM RECOVERY per STAGE
50
m
3
/hr FEED
PERMEATE
CONCENTRATE
25 m
3
/hr
RO SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM
1st stage

2nd stage

50% MAXIMUM RECOVERY per STAGE
100 m
3
/hr
50 m
3
/hr
25 m
3
/hr
75 m
3
/hr
75% RECOVERY
FEED
PERMEATE
CONCENTRATE
RO SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM
1st stage

2nd stage

50% MAXIMUM RECOVERY per STAGE
100 m
3
/hr
50 m
3
/hr
50
m
3
/hr
25 m
3
/hr
75 m
3
/hr
75% RECOVERY
90% REJECTION
100 mg/L
FEED
PERMEATE
CONCENTRATE
RO SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM
1st stage

2nd stage

50% MAXIMUM RECOVERY per STAGE
100 m
3
/hr
50 m
3
/hr
50
m
3
/hr
25 m
3
/hr
75 m
3
/hr
75% RECOVERY
90% REJECTION
100 mg/L
10 mg/L
190 mg/L
19mg/L
13 mg/L
25 m
3
/hr
361 mg/L
3
MEMBRANE SYSTEM
MANAGEMENT
Pretreatment
Monitoring
PRETREATMENT
SUSPENDED SOLIDS FOULING
ORGANIC / MB FOULING
DISSOLVED SOLIDS SCALE
FORMATION
MEMBRANE DEGRADATION
PREVENT
Membrane Productivity as a
Function of Operating Time
Operating Time
Product
Flow
Rate
Properly Pretreated Feed

Membrane Productivity as a
Function of Operating Time
Operating Time
Product
Flow
Rate
Properly Pretreated Feed
Marginal Pretreatment, Periodic Cleaning

Membrane Productivity as a
Function of Operating Time
Operating Time
Product
Flow
Rate
Properly Pretreated Feed
Marginal Pretreatment, Periodic Cleaning
Inadequate Pretreatment, Frequent Cleaning
RO MEMBRANE FEEDWATER
QUALITY REQUIREMENTS
ITEM PARAMETER VALUE
Suspended
Solids
SDI
Turbidity
Iron
Manganese
<5
< 1 NTU
<0.05 mg/L
<0.5 mg/L
Organics TOC 10 15
mg/L
Dissolved
Solids
LSI
Barium
Strontium
< 1*
<0.05 mg/L
<0.1 mg/L
* In concentrate
SDI = Silt Density Index
The Standard Test Method has been described
in ASTM Test D 4189-82

Calculation :
15 / 100 * ] / 1 [
1 0
t t SDI
t
0
= measured initial time, necessary to filter 500 ml of sample water
t
1
= measured time, after 15 minutes feed pressure to be kept constant,
necessary to filter 500 ml sample water

t1 is four times as long as to SDI = 5
A water sample that totally blocks the membrane filter has an SDI = 6.7
RO MEMBRANE -
SPECIFIC FEEDWATER
QUALITY REQUIREMENTS
PARAMETER
Chlorine, free, mg/L
pH
Temperature
CA membrane
<1.0
4 - 6
35C (95F)
PA membrane
0
3 - 11
45C (113F)
Pre-Treatment
Feed water :
Suspended solid (SS)
Dissolved solid (TDS)

84
Pre-Treatment
Suspended solid :
Inorganic particle
Colloids
Biological debris (algae dan
microorganism)

Tends settle on membrane surface


85
Pre-Treatment
Dissolved solid :
Highly soluble salt (Cl-)
Sparingly soluble salt (carbonate, sulfate
and silica) can be precipitate from
concentrate stream
86
Pre-Treatment
Quality of feed water is defined
Concentration of suspended solid
Saturation level of the sparingly soluble
salt
87
Pre-Treatment
Indicator :
Suspended solid :
Turbidity (max 1 NTU)
Silt density index (SDI) max 4 (near the limit :
fouling)
Long term operation average value
recomanded :
Turbidity = 0,5 NTU
SDI = 2,5
88
Pre-Treatment
Sparingly soluble salt indicated by the
parameter :
Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) dan
Saturation Ratio

LSI saturation of the calcium carbonate
<0 : good
>0 : fouling
89
Pre-Treatment
Sparingly soluble salt indicated by the
parameter :
Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) dan
Saturation Ratio


LSI saturation of the calcium carbonate
<0 : good
>0 : fouling
90
strength ionic and T given saltat of ility So
e concentrat in ion concentrat Ion
Ratio Saturation
lub

RO PRETREATMENT
TECHNIQUES
PARAMETER PRETREATMENT
SDI, Turbidity Clarification, Filtration, Filter Aids
Iron, Manganese Oxidation (KMnO
4
, H
2
O
2
, Cl
2
)
Aeration, pH, Greensand
Filtration
____________________________________________________________________________
Organics Cl
2
, Nanofiltration, Activated
Carbon
MB Cl
2
, Biocides, Filtration
____________________________________________________________________________
Hardness, Barium Softening, Sequestrants, pH
Strontium
Reactive Silica Lime Softening
____________________________________________________________________________
Free Chlorine Sodium Metabisulfite
Summary of Fouling Material & Cleaning
Chemicals
92
Cleaning Chemical For Fouling Material
NaOCl Biological; NOM; Synthetic
polymers
Acids (HCl, H
2
SO
4
, Citric Acid) Inorganic deposits
NaOH NOM
Sodium bi-sulfite (SBS) Reducible metals (Fe, Mn)
H
2
O
2
NOM
EDTA Metals
Membrane Cleaning
Hydraulic Cleaning (10~30 minutes)
Water/Air Backwash
Air Scouring
Water Flushing
Chemical Cleaning (1~8 weeks)
Free Chlorine (Sodium Hypochlorite)
Acid/Base
Other strong oxidants, such as H
2
O
2
Reducing agent, such as SBS
Chelating chemicals, such as EDTA
Proprietary Chemicals (surfactants)
4
TROUBLESHOOTING
TROUBLESHOOTING
Mechanical Problems
Performance Problems
Water Analysis
Profile/Probe
Autopsy
WATER ANALYSIS
Cations - Ba, Sr
Anions
Alkalinity
SiO
2

Fe
TOC
MB
Temperature
pH
Water Source

Problem Product Flow Salt Passage Pressure Drop Location

Scaling Decreased Increased Increased Last Stage

MB Decreased Normal/ Normal/ Any Stage
Increased Increased

Colloidal Decreased Normal/ Normal/ First Stage
Increased Increased

Degeneration Increased Increased Decreased First Stage

Abrasion Increased Increased Decreased First Stage


RO Troubleshooting Guide
TERIMA KASIH