# Customers or Units

(Population)
Size of
Population
Size of
Arrivals
Arrival
Control
Arrival
Distribution
Attitude of
Customers
Finite
Infinite
Single Group
Controllable
Uncontrollable
Uniform Random
Patient
Impatient
Poisson
Exponential Others
Customers arrivals
at a departmental
store (i.e hrs of
subject to varying
degrees of
influence
If the arrivals cannot be predicted with certainty, then
the pattern of distribution is random. The random
distribution can be Poisson, Exponential or others
Arrival of patients in an accident
& Emergency ward of a hospital
Impatient Customers
Customers may not join the waiting line when they
find it is too long; this attitude is called balking
Some Customers after waiting in the queue for
sometime may leave it; this attitude is called reneging

 Patient Customers
Those who remain in the queue either voluntarily or
due to the force of circumstances are classified as
patient customers.
Single- channel Poisson Arrivals with Exponential Service Rate
A Single channel facility : Arrivals from an Infinite Population
THE FIRST MODEL (M/M/1)
M / M / 1 : : (FIFO ) : ∞

[ Fixed Arrival rate and Fixed Service ]
Poisson
Arrival
Exponential
Service
Number of
Service
Station
First in
First Out
Queue
Length
• Assumptions:
1. Arrivals are described by Poisson probability
distribution.
2. Single waiting line and each arrival waits to be
served regardless of the length of the queue.(i.e.
infinite capacity) and there is no balking or reneging.
3. Queue discipline is ‘first-come, first-served’.
4. Single server and service times follow exponential
distribution.
5. Customer arrival is independent but the arrival rate
(avenge number of arrivals) does not change over time.
6. The average service rate is more than the average arrival
rate.

• The following events (possibilities) may occur
during a small interval of time, Δt just before time t.
It is assumed that the system is in state n (number of
customers) at time t.
1. The system is in state n (number of customers) and no
arrival and no departure, leaving the total to n customers.\
2. The system is in state n+1 (number of customers) and no
arrival and one departure, reducing the total to n
customers.
3. The system is in state n-1 (number of customers) and one
arrival and no departure, bringing the total to n customers.
• The probability P
n
of n customers in the system at
time t and the value of its various operating
characteristics is summarized as follows:
• The figure below illustrates the probability P
n
by
considering each possible number of customers either
waiting or receiving service at each state that may be
entered by the arrival of a new customer or left by the
completion of the leading customer’s service.

0 1 2 n
-
n n+1 s
… … .

Number of customers in the system

 

On arrival
One Service
completion
 λ/μ = Traffic Intensity (ρ)

 if, λ/μ > 1, in that case the queue will grow without end
if, λ/μ = 1, then, no change in queue length will be noticed
if, λ/μ < 1, then the length of the queue will go on diminishing

 The first model is applicable under the condition that : λ/μ < 1.

Let
λ (or Average Arrival rate) = Average number of customers
arriving in one unit of time.

μ ( or Average Service rate) = Average number of customer being
serviced in one unit of time, assuming
no shortage of customers.

1/λ = Average inter- arrival time or is the length of the time interval
between two consecutive arrivals (t & t +Δt)
1/μ = inter service time

L
s
= Expected Average number of units being serviced and/ or waiting
in the system.
L
q
= Expected Average number in the queue (the number in the queue
does not include the unit being serviced)

p
n
= Probability of having ‘n’ units in the system.

W
q
= Expected Average time an arrival must wait in the queue.
W
s
= Expected Average time an arrival spends in the system (both in
queue and service)

There are several relationships of interest:-
p
0
= (1- λ/μ ) = (μ-λ)/μ  Probability of ‘no’ customer in
the system or system
being empty or
expected idle time of
the system.
1- p
0
= 1- (1-ρ) = ρ = λ/μ  Probability of service
facility being busy.

p
n
= (λ/μ)
n
.p
0
or (λ/μ)
n
(1- λ/μ)
or
p
n
= (λ/μ)p
n-1
 Probability of ‘n’ customers in the
system

 Since p
0
is the probability of the system being empty, it is the expected
idle time of the system.

 Also, (1-p
0
)= λ/μ is the expected busy time of the system, or the
expected utilization of the system.

 Or ρ

= λ/μ (Probabilty of service facility being busy)
We are concerned with the determination of the following:-

1. Expected number of units (or customers) in the waiting line
and or being serviced (i.e the expected/ Average number of
units or customers in the system):-
L = λ/(μ- λ)
or L
s

2. Expected or Average number of units (or customers) in the
queue is :-
( or Average queue length) or The average number of
customers waiting to be served:
Lq = λ
2
/ μ(μ- λ)

3. The average waiting time (in the queue) of an arrival (Average waiting of
an arrival) or the average time a customer waits before being served is:

W
q
= L
q
/ λ = λ
2
/ μ(μ- λ) = λ /μ(μ- λ)
λ

4. Also, since the mean service rate is μ, the mean service time is 1/μ;
hence the average time an arrival spends in the system (both waiting and
in service) or Average time a customer spends in the system is :

W = W
q
+ 1/μ = 1/ (μ-λ)
or W
s
 The probability that the number in the queue and being serviced is greater
than ‘K’ is :-
P (n>K) = (λ/μ)
k+1

 Above equations apply only if (λ/μ)<1
If the arrival rate λ is greater than the service rate μ, the queue will grow
without end unless one of the assumptions is changed.
P.S ; The average number being served;
= Average number in System- Average queue length
= L
s
– L
q