GSM Fundamental Principle

Radio Network Planning & Optimization Dept,Mobile Division
Course Target
After studying this course, you will be able to:
 Understand the system structure and GSM service functions.
 Familiar with GSM ‘s theory of radio interface and key technology.
 Master the fundamental signal flow of GSM.
 Know numbering plan of GSM.
Catalogue
Summary of GSM Mobile Communication
Structure of GSM System
Theory of GSM Radio Interface
Flow of GSM Signal
Numbering Plan of GSM
Development of Mobile Communication
Summary of GSM Mobile
Communication
Simple History of GSM Development
In 1989, GSM standard takes effect.
1
In 1991,GSM system in Europe commercial
mobile communication enters into 2nd generation.
2
In 1994, GSM enters into China.
3
In 2000, the number of China Mobile user is
about 40million,which stands second in the world.

4
users’
requirement
competition
enhancing
technology
developmen
t
Summary of GSM Mobile
Communication
Requirement of GSM System
GSM System Criterion & Business Requirement:
Each country should have more than two equipment merchants,in order to living
and compete together.
GSM must be an open system, and be convenience for equipment merchants to
live and compete.
The import of GSM has no effect on PSTN.
Requirement of GSM System Criterion Technology :
The system must be used widely in Europe.
The system must keep good quality of telecommunication voice.
The system must try it best to use radio frequency effectively.
The system must have enough capacity.
The system must be compatible with other criterion of other digital
communication.
The system must keep safety in users and sending messages.
Summary of GSM Mobile
Communication
Advantage of GSM System
 The advantages of GSM system standard are as
follows:
 The system can allow more interval interference.
 can obtain better average voice quality than simulative cell
system.
 The network sustains data transmission。
 Voice encryption and users’ information security are ensured.
 It is compatible with ISDN,also its simulative system can provide
new services.
 in those countries who adopt GSM system,the technology of
international roam becomes possible.
 Enormous market aggravates competition,It reduces investment
and using price.
Summary of GSM Mobile
Communication
Functions of GSM
System Service
Fundamental Services
that GSM provided
Carrier
Service
Telecom
Service
Fundamental
Carrier
Service
Supplemental
Service
Supplemental
Service
SMS
Service
Voice
Service
Data
Service
most
importan
t
Criterion of GSM
01 Series:Summary of System
02 Series:Service
03 Series:Network Structure & Network Function
04 Series:Radio Interface Signal(L2、L3)
05 Series:Physical Level of Radio Interface
06 Series:Voice Encoding(FR、EFR、HR)
Summary of GSM Mobile
Communication
 07 Series:Adapting Functions of Mobile Terminal.
 08 Series:A Interface & Abis Interface
 09 Series:Network Interlinkage(ISDN、PSTN、PSPDN)
 10 Series:PH2+new Functions
 11 Series:Testing
 12 Series:Network Management(manipulation maintenance、the
monitoring of users and terminals service data 、performance and
equipment management)

Criterion of GSM
Summary of GSM Mobile
Communication
Catalogue
Summary of GSM Mobile Communication
Structure of GSM System
Theory of GSM Radio Interface
Flow of GSM Signal
Numbering Plan of GSM
Development of Mobile Communication
Structure of GSM System
AC EIR
BTS
OMC
MSC
VLR
HLR
BSC
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BSC
BSS - Base Station
Subsystem
NSS - Network
Subsystem
NMS - Network
Management
System MS
A
bis
Air A
IWF
SC
PSPDN
PSTN
ISDN
Transcoder
Each module function of GSM system
Structure of GSM System
MS (Mobile Station):
MS is used to realize mobile terminal functions.
BTS (Base Transceiver Station):
BTS is used to realize radio communication between
mobile communication system and MS.
BSC (Base Station Controller):
BSC is used to realize hub function from radio system to
switch system, the function of radio resource management
and other control functions related to radio .
Function of GSM system’s each module
Structure of GSM
System
HLR (Home Location Register):
In fact it is a database used to store following data:
users’ data,mainly including:
information of users’ position
VLR (Visitor Location Register):
In fact it is a database which is used to store users’ information,
mainly includes:
MSRN (Mobile Station Roaming Number)
TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identification)
The Location Area Code of Mobile Station
Data Related to supplementary service
Users’ identification IMSI (International
Mobile Subscriber Identification)
Users’ ISDN number
VLR address
Function of GSM system’s each module
Structure of GSM System
MSC (Mobile Service Switching center):
It is used to realize switch function of mobile service.
AUC (Authentication Center) :
It is used to authenticate users’ identity.
EIR (mobile station Equipment Identity Register) :
It is used to store and authenticate the identity of mobile station’s
equipments。
OMC (Operation & Maintenance Center):
It is used to monitor and control system equipments.
GSM three network subsystems
Structure of GSM System
GSM network is consist of three network subsystems.
Abis
开放接

开放接口
A i r A
O & M
BSS System Structure of GSM System
 BSS is consist of the
following units
 BSC (Base Station Controller)
 BTS (Base Station)
 TC Transcoder
 BSS main functions
 Radio control network & management
 convert voice to code
 Air interface signal & data processing
 To link NSS signal and air
BTS
TC
BSC
BSC
TC
BTS
BTS
NSS System Structure of GSM System
 NSS is consist of following
units
 MSC Mobile service Switching
Center
 HLR Home Location Register
 VLR Visitor Location Register
 AC Authentication Center
 EIR Equipment Identity Register
 NSS Main Functions
 Calling control
 Calculate the cost
 Mobile Management
 Signal related to other
network base stations
 Users’ data processing
 Locate users’ position
NMS System Structure of GSM System
 NMS Main Functions
 Each function and unit of
monitoring network.
 Malfunction Management
 Configuration Management
 Performance Management
Catalogue
Summary of GSM Mobile Communication
Structure of GSM System
Theory of GSM Radio Interface
Flow of GSM Signal
Numbering Plan of GSM
Development of Mobile Communication
Work Frequency
Band
Theory of GSM Radio Interface
GSM
System
up/ MHz down/ MHz bandwidth/
MHz
Duplex interval/
MHz
Number of
Duplex
channels
GSM900 890 ~ 915 935 ~ 960 2 ×25 45 124
GSM900E 880 ~ 890 925 ~ 935 2 ×35 45 174
GSM1800 1710 ~ 1785 1805 ~ 1880 2 ×75 95 374
GSM1900 1850~1910 1930~1990 2 ×60 80 299
Work Frequency
Band
Theory of GSM Radio Interface
 Channel Interval
 Each carrier frequency stands 200 KHz bandwidth,it adopts
TDMA and includes eight physical channels.
 Channel Configuration
 GSM900MHz frequency band:
 fu(n)=890.2MHz+(n-1)*0.2MHz
 fd(n)= fu(n)+45MHz
 GSM1800MHz frequency band:
 fu(n)=1710.2MHz+(n-512)*0.2MHz
 fd(n)= fu(n)+95MHz
fu(n):uplink frequency,MS sending,BTS receiving
fd(n):downlink frequency,BTS sending,MS receiving
Interference Protection
Ratio
Theory of GSM Radio Interface
 Carrier Wave Interference Ratio --- C/I
 Definition:The ratio of anticipant level received and not-expected level received.
 Same Frequency Interference Protection Ratio ---C/I:
 C/I means how much interference some cell affecting service cell
when different cells use the same frequency.
 requirement of criterion:C/I>=9dB
 requirement of project:add 3dB surplus,i.e. C/I>=12dB
 Adjacent Frequency Interference Protection Ratio ---C/A:
 C/A means how much interference some cell affecting service cell
when different cells use adjacent frequency in different cells.
 Requirement of Criterion:C/I>=-9dB,
 Requirement of Engineering: add 3dB surplus,i.e. C/I>=-6dB
 The interference protection ratio C/I is not less than -41dB when
carrier frequency has a discrepancy of 400KHz.
Technology of
Frequency Multi-use
frequency multi-use:
Users in different location use the same frequency channel. It
improves frequency efficiency greatly.
The unreasonable system design may induce same frequency
and adjacent frequency interference in the network easily.
Theory of GSM Radio Interface
(D/R)
2
= 3*K
D--the distance of frequency multi-use
R--the radius of a cell
K--the mode of frequency multi-use
Technology of
Frequency Multi-use
Theory of GSM Radio Interface
Technology of
Frequency Multi-use
GSM most basal frequency multi-use mode:4×3
“4” base stations
“3”cells
12

c
e
l
l
s

12

f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
i
e
s

c
o
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e

a

g
r
o
u
p

Theory of GSM Radio Interface
The technology of multiply access
Numerous subscribers use public telecommunication lines but
don’t disturb each other.
Multiple Access technology
GSM Technology
FDMA
TDMA
CDMA
Technology of
Multiple Access
Theory of GSM Radio Interface
ʱ¼ä
ƵÂÊ
FDMA
Multiple Access
Technology - FDMA
FDMA:
To realize different frequency channels.
Theory of GSM Radio Interface
TDMA:
To realize communication by different timeslots.
Multiple Access
Technology - TDMA
Theory of GSM Radio Interface
ʱ¼ä
ƵÂÊ
CDMA
Âë
CDMA:
Using different code sequences to realize communication.
Multiple Access
Technology - CDMA
Theory of GSM Radio Interface
TDMA Channel Theory of GSM Radio Interface
TDMA Channel
Physical Channel
Logic Channel
Traffic Channel Control Channel
A physical channel
is just a timeslot.
It’s definition
is that give TDMA
frame fixed
position’s
timeslot .

Different logic
channels are defined
by message type that
channels sent .It is
delivered by BTS
mapping it into
different timeslots.
Physical Channel TS Theory of GSM Radio Interface
B T S
... ...
Bursts from Mobile Station
One Time Slot
Traffic Channel Theory of GSM Radio Interface
Traffic Channel
It is used to carry user’s data. It divides into voice traffic
channel and digital traffic channel.
Voice Traffic Channel
TCH/FS:full speed voice channel 13Kbit/s
TCH/HS:half speed voice channel 5.6Kbit/s
Digital Traffic Channel
TCH/F9.6:full speed digital channel 9.6Kbit/s
TCH/F4.8:full speed voice channel 4.8Kbit/s
TCH/H4.8:half speed digital speed 9.6Kbit/s
TCH/H2.4:half speed voice channel <=2.4Kbit/s
TCH/F2.4:full speed voice channel <=2.4Kbit/s
Control Channel Theory of GSM Radio Interface
Control Channel
carry signal
synchronize
data
Control channel
CCH
DCCH
SDCCH ACCH
SACCH FACCH
CCCH
RACH CBCH
PCH/AGCH
BCCH
BCCH SCH
FCCH
NB
AB
NB
NB
NB
FB
SB
NB/DB
Broadcast Channel
(BCH)
Theory of GSM Radio Interface
BCCH is used to broadcast network
system information:
Cell frequency point
Adjacent cell ‘s BCCH frequency point
LAI
Manage CCCH & CBCH.
Control & choose parameters
BCH is just used at down
linking path
FCCH carries the information used to
correct MS frequency. Due to it, MS is able
to locate and demodulate other information
in the same cell.
SCH will give MS all information which needs to be
synchronized , such cell ‘s TDMA frame and BSIC.
CCCH Theory of GSM Radio Interface
CCCH faces to all MS
in the cell
 PCH --- downlink channel,point
to more points.
 It is used to call MS. The paging range
is the whole LAC area that MS stands.
 AGCH ---downlink channel,point
to more points.
 It is used when BTS assigns SDCCH to MS.
 CBCH is --- downlink
channel,point to more
points
 RACH is a kind of
uplink channel,point
to more points.
 MS sends the request
of connection through
RACH.
 It is used to broadcast
SMS and some public
messages in this cell.
DCCH Theory of GSM Radio Interface
SDCCH --- a kind of bidirectional channel
It is used to pager process,such as
authentication.
Update position.
Short message.
It is also used to assign
TCH.
DCCH is used in a
specific MS
SACCH --- bidirectional channel,
accompany TCH and SDCCH
To transfer testing reports
 To transfer MS power
controlling messages.
To transfer TA
FACCH --- bidirectional channel,accompanying TCH
Supply higher speed than SACCH to transfer signal
message.
Use 20ms burst voice pulse sequence to transfer signal,
which is called stealing frame.
TDMA Frame Theory of GSM Radio Interface
2047 2046 2 1 0 ……
1superhigh frame=2048 superframes
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 frame=8 timeslots
0 25 24 1 …… 0 50 49 1 ……
1multiframe=26 frames 1multiframe=51frames
0 50 49 1 …… 0 25 24 1 ……
1superframe=51multiframes 1superframe=26 multiframes
Each carrier frequency is defined a frame. Each frame
includes eight timeslots and its frame number。
The length of each timeslot is 0.577ms。
•Know GSM Number Plan Briefly
Target:1
st
restrain high frequency ponderance,2
nd
avoid
superfluous instantaneous frequency excursion,3
rd

satisfy the requirement of coherent detection.
Requirement:out-of-band radiated power is-60~-80dB
Features:Its realization is simple,also it adds forward-
filter at
the basis of original MSK modulator.
Gauss filter:Its bandwidth is narrow and
its type is sharp-
cut.
Lower extra impulse response.
The area of output pulse is invariable.
Application:GSM system.
Gauss molding filter
GMSK Modulation
Technology
Theory of GSM Radio Interface
Channel Encoding
去interlaced
coder
channel
interlaced
coder
inner
encoder
inner
decoder
outer
encoder
outer
decoder
voice
encoder
voice
encoder
13 kbit/s
33.9 kbit/s
22.8 kbit/s
voice
output
voice input
Theory of GSM Radio Interface
Complect
Technology
complect technology: let information code permutation and combination at
sending side. Then the information is sent to channel later. In order to resume
original code sequence the receiver will complete it. The terminal target is to
covert impulse error into random error, then rectify it by channel encoding.
3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2
3 4 1 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2
3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2
2
Message grouping
complect
Message
grouping
after
complected
Bit error happened
Theory of GSM Radio Interface
Diversity Technology
 It collects all switch signals by certain method .These
multipath signals received are first divided into
irrelevant multipath signals, from less to more. Then merge
these signal energy again, so the energy become less. As a
result, diversity technology improves receiving quality.
 Diversity technology includes time diversity, space
diversity, frequency diversity, polarization diversity.

Theory of GSM Radio Interface
DTX
 VAD:Voice Activation Detect
 Voice Control:It adopts discontinuous transmission.
In voice communication, each side’s speaking time is less than 40
percent of conversational time when two sides talk to each other.
 The functions of DTX:
 Reduce interference, improve telecommunication quality and enhance
capacity.
 Decrease transmitter’s power and prolong battery’s working hours.
Theory of GSM Radio Interface
Power Control
Technology
 Power control: Its aim is to send minimum effective power on
the premise that ensuring service quality, other than all base
stations send maximum power that cell border required. To
reduce same frequency interference.
 Dynamic power control: In conversation, the output power of
base stations and the output power of mobile stations can be
adjusted accompanying propagation path loss and signal quality
change. As a result. propagation signal intensity in air is
as little as possible, further the received signal that BTS
and MS received also satisfies system anticipant value.

Theory of GSM Radio Interface
Time Ahead (TA)
MS
receive
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
3TS
OFFSET
TDMA FRAME
N
MS
receive
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
3TS
OFFSET
TDMA FRAME
N
MS
receive
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
TDMA FRAME
N
MS
receive
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
TDMA FRAME
N
TIME
ADVANCE
Theory of GSM Radio Interface
Technology of Hop
f
0
f
1
f
2
f
3
f
4
f
5
f
6
f
7

f
0
f
1

f
2

f
3
f
4

f
5

f
6
f
7
t
t
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Hop Design:(5、4、7、0、6、3、1)
Theory of GSM Radio Interface
Catalogue
Summary of GSM Mobile Communication
Structure of GSM System
Theory of GSM Radio Interface
Flow of GSM Signal
Numbering Plan of GSM
Development of Mobile Communication
Functions of GSM Mobile Network
Summary
functions of GSM system
network
 Support communication service network
function.
 Support systematic fundamental service
& supplementary service,ensure
establish telecom among system users.
 Mobile management network functions.
 Support all problems caused by users
moving, including location update,
handover, roaming.
 Safety management network functions.
 Support mobile subscriber authentication,
mobile subscribers identification secrecy,
users’data secrecy, signal data secrecy
and other safeguards.
 Support additional network
functions of page processing.
 Support page rebuilding, queue,
discontinuous receive and other
additional network functions.
Key point!
Location Update
Functions of GSM Mobile Network
HLR
VLR
MSC (old)
VLR
MSC (new)
Location
Update
Location update is caused by
mobile phone.
Current location information is
stored in your SIM card.
Mobile phone monitors network
information ceaselessly. Once finding
current location info. isn’t with the
location stored in SIM card, It will
update location。
Location Update
Functions of GSM Mobile Network
Categories of Location Update
Turn on / off mobile phone
IMSI ATTACH/DETACH
Location Register
MS is turned on or turned off
Normal Location Update
MS changes its location
Periodical Location Update
Carrier sets period
When the interval between two
location update exceeds such period,
MS initiates location update.
V L R
M S C
LA 2
LA 1
ON
Location Update
Functions of GSM Mobile Network

RLC
RLSD
DT1:CIPH MODE CMD
RF CH REL ACK
RF CH REL
REL IND
UA
DISC
DEACT SACCH
DR:CH REL
CH REL
DT1:Clear COM
DT1:Clear CMD
DT1:CIPH MODE COM
DI:CIPH MODE COM
CIPH MODE COM
CIPH MODE CMD
ENCRY CMD
CC
CR:LOC UPD REQ
EST IND
UA
SABM
IMM ASS
IMM ASS CMD
CH ACT ACK
CH ACT
CH RQD
CH REQ
MS BTS BSC MSC
DTAP:LOC UPD ACCEPT
Signal Flow
MS original call-1
Functions of GSM Mobile Network

DT1 : ASS REQ
DT 1 : CIPH MODE CMD
PHY CONT CONF
PHY CONT REQ
DT1:CIPH MODE COM
DI :CIPH MODE COM
CIPH MODE COM
CIPH MODE CMD
ENCRY CMD
CC
CR:CM SERV REQ
EST IND
UA
SABM
IMM ASS
IMM ASS CMD
CH ACT ACK
CH ACT
CH RQD
CH REQ
MS BTS

BSC

MSC

DTAP: SETUP
DTAP: CALL PROC
MS original call -2
Functions of GSM Mobile Network

MS BTS

BSC

MSC

RF CH REL ACK
RF CH REL
RLC
RLSD
CH REL
DISC
UA
RF CH REL
RF CH REL ACK
REL IND
DEACT SACCH
DR:CH REL
EST IND
ASS COM
DT1:ASS COM
CH ACT ACK
CH ACT
UA
SABM
DR:ASS CMD
ASS CMD
DT1:Clear COM
DT1:C lear CMD
DI :ASS COM
DTAP:Alerting
DTAP:Connect
DTAP:Connect ACK
数据流
DTAP:D isconnect
DTAP:Release
DTAP:Release COM
MS terminal call-1
Functions of GSM Mobile Network

UDT:PAG
PAG CMD
PAG REQ
DT1:ASS REQ
DT1:CIPH MODE CMD
PHY CONT CONF
PHY CONT REQ
DT1: CIPH MODE
COM
DI :CIPH MODE COM
CIPH MODE COM
CIPH MODE CMD
ENCRY CMD
CC
CR:PAG RES
EST IND
UA
SABM
IMM ASS
IMM ASS CMD
CH ACT ACK
CH ACT
CH RQD
CH REQ
DTAP:SETUP
DTAP:CALL CONF
BSC MSC BTS MS
MS terminal call-2
Functions of GSM Mobile Network

RF CH REL ACK
RF CH REL
RLC
RLSD
CH REL
DISC
UA
RF CH REL
RF CH REL ACK
REL IND
DEACT SACCH
DR:CH REL
EST IND
ASS COM
DT1:ASS COM
CH ACT ACK
CH ACT
UA
SABM
DR:ASS CMD
ASS CMD
DT1:Clear COM
DT1:C lear CMD
DI :ASS COM
DTAP:Alerting
DTAP:Connect
DTAP:Connect ACK
数据流
DTAP:D isconnect
DTAP:Release
DTAP:Release COM
BSC MSC BTS MS
Handover
Why needs to handover?
To keep the consistency of call when MS is moving.
To improve network service quality
Reduce drop call rate
Reduce congestion rate
Who takes part in handover?
MS、BTS、BSC、MSC
MS:To measure the performance of radio subsystem downlink route and
signal intensity received from surrounding cells .
BTS:monitor the uplink receiving level and quality of each MS serviced,
monitor interference level. The result will be sent to BSC.
BSC:The first judgment is accomplished by BSC.
MSC:As to other messages sent from BSS and MSC,the judgment of
measuring result is accomplished by MSC.
Functions of GSM Mobile Network
Handover-
classification
sorted by springing conditions
Power budget handover
Succoring electronic level handover
Succoring quality handover
Distance handover
Voice service handover
sorted by fixed time ahead
Synchronized handover
Asynchronized handover

sorted by calling location
Handover in a cell
Handover among cells
Handover in a BSC
Handover among BSCs
Handover among MSCs
Functions of GSM Mobile Network
Handover-in a
cell
Air A
TC
BTS
BSC
N
e
w
C
h
a
n
n
el
O
l
d
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
Functions of GSM Mobile Network
Handover-in a
cell
Functions of GSM Mobile Network
Handover-among
cells
Air A
TC
BTS
BTS
BSC
Old Cell / BTS New Cell / BTS
Functions of GSM Mobile Network
Handover-in a
BSC
Air A
BTS
Old Cell / BTS
New Cell / BTS
BTS
BSC TC
BSC TC
VLR
MSC
Functions of GSM Mobile Network
Handover-among cells
in the same BSC
Functions of GSM Mobile Network
Handover-among cells
in different BSCs
Air A
BTS
Old Cell / BTS
New Cell / BTS
BTS
BSC TC
BSC TC
VLR
MSC
Functions of GSM Mobile
Network
Handover-among
cells in different BSCs
Functions of GSM Mobile Network
Handover-among cells
is different MSCs
Air A
BTS
Old Cell / BTS
New Cell / BTS
BTS
BSC TC
BSC
TC
VLR
MSC
VLR
MSC
Functions of GSM Mobile
Network
Handover-handover
signal flow among MSCs
Functions of GSM
Mobile Network

MS BTS BSC-A MSC-A BSC-B MSC-B VLR-B
Handover Required (new BTS) [RR]
Perform handover (new BTS, Ch type)
Handover Request (new BTS)
Handover Req Ack (Radio Ch)
Allocate handover number
Send handover report
(MSRN)
(MSRN)
Radio Ch Ack (Radio Ch, MSRN)
IAM (MSRN)
ACM
Handover Command (Radio CH) [RR]
Handover Complete [RR]
Clear Command[RR]
Clear Complete[RR]
Send End Signal
Answer
Measurement Result [RR]
Catalogue
Summary of GSM Mobile Communication
Structure of GSM System
Theory of GSM Radio Interface
Flow of GSM Signal
Numbering Plan of GSM
Development of Mobile Communication
Numbering Plan of GSM
Area of GSM position
PLMN area
MSC area
LAC area
BTS area
CELL area
GSM service
area
Numbering Plan of GSM
Numbering Plan-MSISDN
 MSISDN (Mobile Subscriber Number)
 Original caller pages number that GSM mobile subscriber called.
CC:Country Code,China’s CC is 86.
NDC:National Destination Code(China Mobile is from 135 to 139)
SN:Subscriber number is a 8-digit code,which
is distributed by carrier himself.
CC
NDC
SN
MS national effective ISDN number
MS international effective ISDN number
Numbering Plan of GSM
Numbering Plan-IMSI
 IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity)
 Every subscriber is distributed an unique IMSI. IMSI is effective
in the whole GSM system, It is used to identify subscriber’s
identity.
MCC:Mobile Country Code. identify subscriber’s own country,China is 460.
MNC:Mobile Network Code. It is used to identify mobile subscriber own mobile communication
network ---PLMN(e.g. China Mobile is 01)
MSIN:Mobile Station Identification Number. It is used to identify subscribers in Mobile
Communication Network.
NMSI:National Mobile Station Identification Number.
MCC
MNC
MSIN
NMSI
IMSI<=15-digit
Numbering Plan of GSM
Numbering Plan-TMSI
 TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity )
 To transfer TMSI instead of IMSI in Um interface. As a result it
enhances users’ safety.
 Mobile subscribers from VLR are distributed after successful
authentication,VLR distributes a 4B BCD code by itself. However
it is confined to temporarily use instead of IMSI in those areas
dominated by VLR.
 Be correspond to IMSI.


Numbering Plan of GSM
Numbering Plan - MSRN
 MSRN (Mobile Station Roaming Number)
 MSRN is a temporary number for MS distributed by VLR when
paging connection.
 Choose route when connecting in GSM network.
 The makeup of MSRN is similar to MSISDN, and MSRN is a
number that less than 15-digit .


Numbering Plan of GSM
Numbering Plan-LAI
 LAI
 Definition:
 LAI is an area that MS can move anyway but doesn’t need to update
position. It is made of many cells.
 In order to page MS,all cells in such area will send page signal at the
same time。
 MSC area>=LA>= a cell
 Function: Detecting Request of update position and signal handover.
MCC
MNC
LAC
LAI
3bits
2bits <=16bits
LAC:It is used to identify an area in GSM Network,and it is
defined by carrier .
Numbering Plan of GSM
Numbering Plan-CGI
 CGI (Cell Global Identity)
 CGI is an unique mark which is used to identify cell in all GSM PLMN.
It is made of LAI and CI.
CI:Cell Identity. It is defined by carrier itself,and it is a kind of 2Byte BCD code.
MCC
MNC
LAC
LAI
CI
CGI
Number Planing of GSM
Numbering Plan-BSIC
 BSIC (Base Station Identity Code)
 It is used to identify adjacent BTS in adjacent countries,and it is a
kind of 6-bit code.
NCC:PLMN colour code. It is used to distinguish carriers in national boundaries,
also it can distinguish different provinces in one country.
BCC:BTS Color Code. It is distributed by carriers themselves. It is used to
distinguish adjacent BTS which adopts the same type of base station.
NCC
BCC
BSIC
3bit
3bit
Numbering Plan of GSM
Numbering Plan-IMEI
 IMEI (International Mobile Station Equipment Identity)
 IMEI is used to identify MS uniquely,and it is a 15-digit Decimal code.
TAC:Type Approval Code
FAC:Factory Assembly Code. It stands factory and assembly address.
SNR:Serial Number,it is used to identify each equipment.
SP: Standby Code
TAC
FAC
SNR
SP
IMEI
6bits 2bits
6bits
2bits
Catalogue
Summary of GSM Mobile Communication
Structure of GSM System
Theory of GSM Radio Interface
Flow of GSM Signal
Numbering Plan of GSM
Development of Mobile Communication
1 k
1 M
2 M
Bit/s
Messaging
SMS
Voice
Graphics
text
Medium
quality
High
quality
Mobile Office
Video
UMTS
UMTS
GPRS
GPRS
2002
2000
GSM
GSM
10 k
1999
56 k
EDGE
EDGE
2001
115 k
384 k
A
l
w
a
y
s
-
o
n
Development of Mobile
Communication
Development of GSM
System
SMS
Information
Services
Chat
Room E-Mail
m-stock trading
m-banking
m-cash
Picture Mail
Route planning
Multi-player
Games
Mobile Office

Schedule Management
Work flow Management
Electronic Conference
File Sharing
Radio
Music
Video Mail
Video streaming
Web
Interactive TV
TV Conference
WAP
GPRS
3G
Development of Mobile
Data Service
Development of Mobile
Communication
low-speed data
high-speed data
The Evolving Route to 3G
Development of Mobile
Communication
TD-SCDMA