EFFECT OF VITAMIN A ON

SEVERITY OF ACUTE
DIARRHEA IN CHILDREN
By: Marlisye Marpaung, Suprianto, Atan Baas Sinuhaji
Departement of Child Health, University of North
Sumatera Medical School, Medan
Presented by: Sisilia Elfani Pebiantia, S.Ked

Background
Vitamin A deficiency may increase the risk or be a
cause of diarrhea. Many studies have been
conducted on the efficacy of vitamin A in the
management of acute diarrhea, but the outcomes
remain inconclusive.

To determine the effectiveness of vit-A in
reducing the severity of acute diarrhea in
children
Methods
Methods
• single-blind-randomized controlled trial
Subject
• children age 6 months to 5 years, who
had diarrheas at Puskesmas Hina Kiri
Time
• August 2009 to Januari 2010
Subject
• Group 1
• Receive a single dose
of vit A 100.000 IU for
subject age 6-11month
old or with body weight
≤ 10 kg, 200.000 IU for
≥12 month old or with
body weight >10 kg.
• Group 2
• Receive a single dose
of placebo.
Severity
• based on changes in diarrheal
frequency, stool consistency,
volume and duration of
diarrhea after treatment.
Statistical
analyses
• independent T-test and Chi
square tests
Included
• Children aged 6 month to
5 years with acute
diarrhea.
Excluded
• Children with severe
dehydration, cholera, critically
ill conditions (severe
malnutrition, encephalitis,
meningitis, sepsis,
bronchopneumonia, TB)
• Children wo consumed vit A 4
months to avoid
hyperavitaminosis conditions,
• Suffered from measles in the 6
weeks prior the study,
conditions that may lead to
vitamin A deficiency and have a
positive response to vitamin A
supplementation.
Diarrhea
• In Indonesia, diarrhea remains a major cause of death in
infant and children.
• In the GIT, VAD is both cause and consequence of
diarrheal disease.
• In 20th century, vitamin A was commonly known as the
anti-infective vitamin, when its deficiency was shown to be
associated with various infections. However, the
mechanism by which vitamin A protects the body against
infection is unclear.
HASIL PENELITIAN
• A deficiency adversely affects the epithelial lining, leading
to decreased mucous secretion and weakened local
barriers to infection. Vitamin A deficiency may also lead to
goblet cell depletion, abnormal villous architecture and
villous atrophy, as well as adversely affecting humoral and
cellular Immune functions

• Studies conducted in many countries have shown a
benefit of vitamin A in treating diarrhea
CONCLUSIONS
Vitamin A supplementationis
effective in reducing the
severity of acute diarrhea in
children under five years of
age.