Career Development

Linking data to propositions`

”effects” pattern
”no effects” pattern Observation

Ann Roe's career development theory
 This theory of career development was a needs

ROE’S theory of carrier choice concludes that
difference in early childhood experience get reflected in
later choice of occupation.

 This theory of career development was a needs
approach in which genetics, childhood experiences, and
the relationship with parents were contributing factors to
the choice of a career. She believed that the parenting
style would determine whether or not a person would be

 A/c to theory it is these orientations that leads to interest
development and occupational choice.

 Anne Roe was the first career specialist to develop a
two-dimensional system of occupational classification
that utilizes FIELDS and LEVELS.
 These field dimension based on interest, and primary
focus of occupation
 These level dimension based on responsibility,
capacity, skill in occupation.

The 8 occupational "fields" include:

Service, Business, Contact, Organizations, Technology,
Outdoor, Science, General Culture, and Arts &

The 6 "levels" of skill include:
Professional & Managerial 1, Professional & Managerial
2, Semi-Professional / Small Business, Skilled, Semi-
Skilled, and Unskilled
 Theorists, Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, and Herma. Ginzberg et al. were
the first group of career theorists to take a holistic approach to career
planning. They looked at the whole person and the development of a career
decision over the time.
 Ginzbergs states that in the process of career determining is the series of
interlocked that adolescents make over time
 The second proposition is that process of career choice is largely
irreversible. – once launched ,it become very difficult to change direction.
According to Ginzberg et al., career decision-making occurs in three phases

1.Fantasy: Takes place until about the age of eleven. Children role play and
imagine themselves in various work situations. During this phase, children
begin to think about which careers they might like to do in the future.

2. Tentative: Children begin to make tentative or preliminary career choices
based upon information gathered through the following sub-phases:

 Interests (Age 11 or 12): The child makes more concrete decisions about
him or her likes, dislikes, and interests.
 Capacity (Age 13 or 14): The teenager becomes more aware of his or her
particular abilities as they relate to potential career.
 Values (Age 15 or 16): The teenager considers their personal values and
priorities in life, as well as his or her occupational lifestyle.
 Transition (Age 17 or 18): At this point, the individual becomes aware of the
decision for making a vocational choice.
 3. Realistic: Adolescents start to crystallize and specify
occupations of interest. This final phase is made up of the following
 Exploration: After considering options, the individual begins to
narrow his or her career choices.
 Crystallization: The individual commits to a specific career field.
 Specification: The individual selects a job or professional training
program as required by their career of choice.

Super theory of career development

Super theory of career development says that, work / life satisfaction is
depended upon the extent of your abilities, interests, personality,
and values.

Major Points:
1) Career development is a life long process.

2) Career pattern is determined by parent's socioeconomic level,
mental ability, personality, and opportunities

3) Work / life satisfaction is depended upon interests, personality, and
According to Super, self-concept changes over time, and develops as a
result of experience. As such, career development is lifelong.

Carrier planning
Career planning is the process by which one selects career goals and
the path to these goals. Career development is those personal
improvements one undertakes to achieve a personal career plan.
Career management is the process of designing and implementing
goals, plans and strategies to enable the organization to satisfy
employee needs while allowing individuals to achieve their career
goals. So, due to this career planning and development is necessary
to each and every employee in an organization. The need of career
planning and development is felt in each and every organization of
today’s global world.
Process of Career Planning & Development
The following are the steps in Career Planning and Development:

1. Analysis of individual skills, knowledge, abilities, aptitudes etc.

2. Analysis of career opportunities both within and outside the organization.

3. Analysis of career demands on the incumbent in terms of skills, knowledge, abilities,
aptitude etc., and in terms of qualifications, experience and training received etc.

4. Relating specific jobs to different career opportunities.

5. Establishing realistic goals both short-term and long-term.

6. Formulating career strategy covering areas of change and adjustment.

7. Preparing and implementing action plan including acquiring resources for achieving

Advantages of Career Planning and Development
 For Individuals:

 1. The process of career planning helps the individual to have the knowledge of various
career opportunities, his priorities etc.

 2. This knowledge helps him select the career that is suitable to his life styles, preferences,
family environment, scope for self-development etc.

 3. It helps the organization identify internal employees who can be promoted.

 4. Internal promotions, upgradation and transfers motivate the employees, boost up their
morale and also result in increased job satisfaction.

 5. Increased job satisfaction enhances employee commitment and creates a sense of
belongingness and loyalty to the organization.

 6. Employee will await his turn of promotion rather than changing to another organization.
This will lower employee turnover.

 7. It improves employee’s performance on the job by taping their potential abilities and
further employee turnover.

 8. It satisfies employee esteem needs.

For Organizations: -
 A long-term focus of career planning and development will increase the effectiveness
of human resource management. More specifically, the advantages of career
planning and development for an organization include:

i. Efficient career planning and development ensures the availability of human
resources with required skill, knowledge and talent.

ii. The efficient policies and practices improve the organization’s ability to attract and
retain highly skilled and talent employees.

iii. The proper career planning ensures that the women and people belong to
backward communities get opportunities for growth and development.

iv. The career plan continuously tries to satisfy the employee expectations and as
such minimizes employee frustration.

v. By attracting and retaining the people from different cultures, enhances cultural

vi. Protecting employees’ interest results in promoting organizational goodwill.

 Crites has formulated a model of career maturity that
encompasses both the content and the process of career
decision making. He proposed that abilities are organized in
a hierarchical Fashion..

 The lowest level of hierarchy includes specific factors such
as knowledge of the world of work.
 The intermediate level comprises group factors of
dimensions that coverage upon the highest level of the
hierarchical model-the general factor ‘G’.

 This ‘G’ is the degree of career maturity. It can be defined in
absolute terms as ‘the place reached on the continuum of
career development’ or in relative terms as the individual’s
standing in the appropriate age or grade reference group..

Main points
 1:- Occupational and career thinking
occurs during adolescence.
 2:- values have their basis in abilities and
 3:- vocational interests and work values
seem to be closely related with each other.
Categories of sources of
satisfaction from work:-
 Intrinsic values are satisfactions derived from the
activity itself.
 Extrinsic values are the returns that a job provides.
 Concomitant values are those aspects of work that
are a part of the task situation,although not
necessarily part of the work itself.For example, in
many tasks the appeal lies not in what one does,
but in the interaction a person enjoys with others
while working.
Dimensions identified with respect to

 Security: Desire to have a high
income,economic security,good fringe
 Autonomy: Desire to act independently or to
exert influence.
 Affiliation: Desire to maintain social
contacts,either active or passive.
 Respect: Wish to gain
recognition,esteem,respect and status.
 Self-expression: Desire to express oneself
in one’s work to accomplish given tasks….
What is diff. b/w career and job
•A job is something you do simply to earn money; a career is a series
of connected employment opportunities.

•A job has minimal impact on your future work life, while a career
provides experience and learning to fuel your future.

•A job offers few networking opportunities, but a career is loaded with

•When you work at a job, you should do the minimum without
annoying the boss. When you’re in a career, you should go the extra
mile, doing tasks beyond your minimum job description.