Definition &

Historical Background
What is linguistics ?
It’s the scientific study of language
Linguistics as a field divided into
• Theoretical linguistics
• APPLIED LINGUISTICS
• Descriptive linguistics
• Historical linguistics
• Geographical linguistics
• Comparative linguistics
What is Language Teaching?
Linguistics &
Language
Teaching
Definition &
Historical
Background
Approaches
to Language
Teaching
Syllabus Design
Testing &
Evaluation
The Relationship of Linguistics to
Language Teaching
Linguistics Language Teaching
Both takes LANGUAGE as their subject.
the general principles in
which languages are
constructed
LINGUISTIC
The Relation of Linguistics to
Language Teaching
Linguistics
Language Teaching
APPLI ED LI NGUI STI CS
ACHIEVEMENTS
OF
LINGUISTIC INQUIRY
EFFECTIVE
LANGUAGE
TEACHING
Burns (2009) stated that Applied Linguistics means
taking language and language theories as the basis to:
What is Applied Linguistics?
The Main subfields of applied
linguistics
 Language Acquisition
 Teaching and learning foreign
languages
 Improving teaching methodology
 Improving syllabuses
 Language assessment: the assessment
and evaluation of language achievement
and proficiency, both in first and additional
languages, and for both general and
specific purposes.

History of Applied Linguistics
The term reflected the insights of
structural or functional linguists that
could be applied to second
language teaching and to first
language. (Halliday, M., et al. 1964)


Expanded to include language
assessment, language policy, and
second language acquisition.
1950s
1960s
History of Applied Linguistics
Became a problem-driven field rather
than theoretical linguistics. Applied
linguistics also included solution of
language-related problems in the real
world.
Viewed as problem driven and real-
world based rather than theory driven
and disconnected from real language
use. (Widdowson, H., et al. 1992)
1970s
1990s
• Changes in language teaching methods throughout
history have reflected the development of linguistic
theories.

• From the 17th to the 19th centuries, linguistics was
characterized by traditional grammar.

• The interest in the analysis of vernaculars
(grammars, grammar schools, grammarians)
favoured one method:




“GRAMMAR TRANSLATION”
EARLY 20th CENTURY
The emphasis was back on the “USE” of a language rather than
on its “ANALYSIS”.

The “DIRECT METHOD” FRANCOIS GOUIN (1880) also
known as the “NATURAL METHOD” or “NATURAL
APPROACH” gained favour.
20th CENTURY “APPROACHES”
TO LANGUAGE TEACHING
MAIN APPROACHES BY
INFLUENCE
• Language is rule- governed.
• The emphasis is on
cognitive behavior (not habit
formation; Skinner´s
cognitive conditioning)
COGNITIVE
APPROACH
• Learning a foreign language
is a process of self
realization and of relating to
other people
AFFECTIVE –
HUMANISTIC
APPROACH
MAIN APPROACHES BY
INFLUENCE
• Language acquisition
occurs if only the goal of
the language teaching is
communication.
COMPREHENSION
APPROACH
• The purpose of
language (the goal of
teaching) is
communication.
COMMUNICATIVE
APPROACH
Syllabus Design
• Syllabus is THE DESCRIPTION OF PLANNING AND
FRAMEWORK FOR A COURSE OF STUDY, consist of the
learning goals, objectives, contents, processes,
resources and means of evaluation planned for students.

• In brief , a syllabus can be described as a statement of what
is to be learnt. It reflects language and linguistic performance.
(Hutchinson and Waters, 1987)


Difference between Syllabus
and Curriculum

• Curriculum is wider term as
compared with syllabus.
• Curriculum covers all the
activities and arrangements
made by the institution
• Syllabus is limited to a
particular subject of a
particular class.


Curriculum
Syllabus
Scheme of
work
Lesson
plan
Types of syllabi
Product-oriented
Structural
approach
Situational
approach
Functional
approach
Process-oriented
Task-based
approach
Proportional
approach
Learner-led
syllabus
Product Oriented
• A list of grammatical structure, leading
to an understanding of the grammatical
system
• Main organising foundation
STRUCTURAL/
GRAMMAR
• Relates to situational contexts
• Principle – teach language that occurs
in situations
• E.g.: seeing dentist, meeting new
people
SITUATIONAL
• Emphasizes on communication
purpose & conceptual meaning of
language
• E.g.: requesting , offering, agreeing
FUNCTIONAL
• Use tasks and activities to encourage
students to utilize language.
• Task – relevant to real world,
meaningful
TASK-BASED
• To develop overall competence –
improve basic skills
• Syllabus – dynamic, not static to get
feedback and flexibility
PROPORTIONAL
• Based on learners’ personality and
experiences
• Learners – be involved in the
implementation of the syllabus design
as far as possible
LEARNER- LED
Process Oriented
Language Activities
Language activities (games)

Hadfield (1999)





LINGUISTICS COMMUNICATIVE
ADVANTAGES
• promotes active
learning
• motivation
DISADVANTAGES
• noise
• class control
• timing
Types of
language
games
Sorting,
ordering
and
arranging Information
gap
Guessing
Search
Role-
play
Matching
Labeling
Exchanging
Board
Benefits Of Test In
Language Teaching
• Tests are very useful instruments that
have the power to inform and influence

Functions Of Tests
FEEDBACK FUNCTION
• improves the teaching and learning for both teachers and
students
ASSESSMENT FUNCTION
• focuses on the result of language teaching
BACKWASH FUNCTION
• assesses whether the teaching goal is appropriate, valid
and to what degree it has been achieved
Language Testing
• VALIDITY refers to the degree to which a test
measures what it is intended to measure.
• RELIABILITY refers to whether a test produces the
consistent results when given to the same
candidates twice in succession.
• EFFICIENCY involves questions of economy, ease
of administration, scoring, and interpretation of
results.
Types of
language
testing
The Discrete
Point Test
The Integrative
Test
The
Communicative
Test
The Achievement
Test
The Proficiency
Test
The
Aptitude
Test
The Diagnosis
Test
REFERENCES
• Charles E. Townsend
Princeton University (phoenix.princeton.edu)
Topic: Linguistics and Language Teaching
• Communicative Language Teaching:
Linguistic Theory and Classroom Practice
SANDRA J. SAVIGNON
• Relation between Linguistics & Language Teaching.pdf
• Linguistics and Language Teaching.ppt