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Definition &

Historical Background
What is linguistics ?
Its the scientific study of language
Linguistics as a field divided into
Theoretical linguistics
APPLIED LINGUISTICS
Descriptive linguistics
Historical linguistics
Geographical linguistics
Comparative linguistics
What is Language Teaching?
Linguistics &
Language
Teaching
Definition &
Historical
Background
Approaches
to Language
Teaching
Syllabus Design
Testing &
Evaluation
The Relationship of Linguistics to
Language Teaching
Linguistics Language Teaching
Both takes LANGUAGE as their subject.
the general principles in
which languages are
constructed
LINGUISTIC
The Relation of Linguistics to
Language Teaching
Linguistics
Language Teaching
APPLI ED LI NGUI STI CS
ACHIEVEMENTS
OF
LINGUISTIC INQUIRY
EFFECTIVE
LANGUAGE
TEACHING
Burns (2009) stated that Applied Linguistics means
taking language and language theories as the basis to:
What is Applied Linguistics?
The Main subfields of applied
linguistics
Language Acquisition
Teaching and learning foreign
languages
Improving teaching methodology
Improving syllabuses
Language assessment: the assessment
and evaluation of language achievement
and proficiency, both in first and additional
languages, and for both general and
specific purposes.

History of Applied Linguistics
The term reflected the insights of
structural or functional linguists that
could be applied to second
language teaching and to first
language. (Halliday, M., et al. 1964)


Expanded to include language
assessment, language policy, and
second language acquisition.
1950s
1960s
History of Applied Linguistics
Became a problem-driven field rather
than theoretical linguistics. Applied
linguistics also included solution of
language-related problems in the real
world.
Viewed as problem driven and real-
world based rather than theory driven
and disconnected from real language
use. (Widdowson, H., et al. 1992)
1970s
1990s
Changes in language teaching methods throughout
history have reflected the development of linguistic
theories.

From the 17th to the 19th centuries, linguistics was
characterized by traditional grammar.

The interest in the analysis of vernaculars
(grammars, grammar schools, grammarians)
favoured one method:




GRAMMAR TRANSLATION
EARLY 20th CENTURY
The emphasis was back on the USE of a language rather than
on its ANALYSIS.

The DIRECT METHOD FRANCOIS GOUIN (1880) also
known as the NATURAL METHOD or NATURAL
APPROACH gained favour.
20th CENTURY APPROACHES
TO LANGUAGE TEACHING
MAIN APPROACHES BY
INFLUENCE
Language is rule- governed.
The emphasis is on
cognitive behavior (not habit
formation; Skinners
cognitive conditioning)
COGNITIVE
APPROACH
Learning a foreign language
is a process of self
realization and of relating to
other people
AFFECTIVE
HUMANISTIC
APPROACH
MAIN APPROACHES BY
INFLUENCE
Language acquisition
occurs if only the goal of
the language teaching is
communication.
COMPREHENSION
APPROACH
The purpose of
language (the goal of
teaching) is
communication.
COMMUNICATIVE
APPROACH
Syllabus Design
Syllabus is THE DESCRIPTION OF PLANNING AND
FRAMEWORK FOR A COURSE OF STUDY, consist of the
learning goals, objectives, contents, processes,
resources and means of evaluation planned for students.

In brief , a syllabus can be described as a statement of what
is to be learnt. It reflects language and linguistic performance.
(Hutchinson and Waters, 1987)


Difference between Syllabus
and Curriculum

Curriculum is wider term as
compared with syllabus.
Curriculum covers all the
activities and arrangements
made by the institution
Syllabus is limited to a
particular subject of a
particular class.


Curriculum
Syllabus
Scheme of
work
Lesson
plan
Types of syllabi
Product-oriented
Structural
approach
Situational
approach
Functional
approach
Process-oriented
Task-based
approach
Proportional
approach
Learner-led
syllabus
Product Oriented
A list of grammatical structure, leading
to an understanding of the grammatical
system
Main organising foundation
STRUCTURAL/
GRAMMAR
Relates to situational contexts
Principle teach language that occurs
in situations
E.g.: seeing dentist, meeting new
people
SITUATIONAL
Emphasizes on communication
purpose & conceptual meaning of
language
E.g.: requesting , offering, agreeing
FUNCTIONAL
Use tasks and activities to encourage
students to utilize language.
Task relevant to real world,
meaningful
TASK-BASED
To develop overall competence
improve basic skills
Syllabus dynamic, not static to get
feedback and flexibility
PROPORTIONAL
Based on learners personality and
experiences
Learners be involved in the
implementation of the syllabus design
as far as possible
LEARNER- LED
Process Oriented
Language Activities
Language activities (games)

Hadfield (1999)





LINGUISTICS COMMUNICATIVE
ADVANTAGES
promotes active
learning
motivation
DISADVANTAGES
noise
class control
timing
Types of
language
games
Sorting,
ordering
and
arranging Information
gap
Guessing
Search
Role-
play
Matching
Labeling
Exchanging
Board
Benefits Of Test In
Language Teaching
Tests are very useful instruments that
have the power to inform and influence

Functions Of Tests
FEEDBACK FUNCTION
improves the teaching and learning for both teachers and
students
ASSESSMENT FUNCTION
focuses on the result of language teaching
BACKWASH FUNCTION
assesses whether the teaching goal is appropriate, valid
and to what degree it has been achieved
Language Testing
VALIDITY refers to the degree to which a test
measures what it is intended to measure.
RELIABILITY refers to whether a test produces the
consistent results when given to the same
candidates twice in succession.
EFFICIENCY involves questions of economy, ease
of administration, scoring, and interpretation of
results.
Types of
language
testing
The Discrete
Point Test
The Integrative
Test
The
Communicative
Test
The Achievement
Test
The Proficiency
Test
The
Aptitude
Test
The Diagnosis
Test
REFERENCES
Charles E. Townsend
Princeton University (phoenix.princeton.edu)
Topic: Linguistics and Language Teaching
Communicative Language Teaching:
Linguistic Theory and Classroom Practice
SANDRA J. SAVIGNON
Relation between Linguistics & Language Teaching.pdf
Linguistics and Language Teaching.ppt